Lev D. Bergelson

Personal information

Career summary

1936-1941: student of the Chemical Department ot the Moscow State University;

1941-1945: Service in Red (Soviet) Army during the WWII, demobilized as capitain;

1945-1959: Postgraduate in Institute of Organic Chemistry; presentitng of PhD thesis (Moscow);junior research scientist; senior research sientist;

1959-1995: senior research scientist in the Institute of Natural Compounds Chemistry (today - Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry), since 1986 - principal research scientist;

1963-1986: head of Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry in IBCh AS USSR

Teaching activity

1965: professor of natural product chemistry


PeriodCountry, cityEducation institutionAdditional info
1936–1941 Russia, Moscow Moscow State University, Chemistry Department MS in chemistry
1945–1949 Россия, Москва Zelinskij Institute of Organic Chemistry AS USSR (IOCh) PhD in chemistry
1963 Russia, Moscow Institute of chemistry of the Natural Compounds AS USSR (ICNC) DSc in chemistry
1965 Russia, Moscow Institute of chemistry of the Natural Compounds AS USSR (ICNC) Awarded professor of natural product chemistry

Awards & honors

  • Order of the Red Star (1945);
  • Medals "For Valour", "For the Capture of Budapest", "For the Liberation of Belgrade", "For the Capture of Vienna", "For the Victory Over Germany in World War II in 1941-1945" (1945);
  • Medal "XX Years of Victory in Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 гг." (1965);
  • Medal "For Valorous Work. In Commemoration of centenary of Vladimir I. Lenin’s birth”" (1970);
  • Order of the Patriotic War, the 2nd class (1985);
  • USSR State Prize in science and engineering - for the works in 1965—1983 «Structure and function of lipids» (1985).

Scientific societies’ membership

1968: corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR

Founding Editor of journal Chemistry and Physics of Lipids (Elsevier)


Selected publications

  1. Touitou E., Dayan N., Bergelson L., Godin B., Eliaz M. (2000). Ethosomes - novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society 65 (3), 403–18 [+]

    This work describes a novel carrier for enhanced skin delivery, the ethosomal system, which is composed of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomal systems were much more efficient at delivering a fluorescent probe to the skin in terms of quantity and depth, than either liposomes or hydroalcoholic solution. The ethosomal system dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of minoxidil in vitro compared with either ethanolic or hydroethanolic solution or phospholipid ethanolic micellar solution of minoxidil. In addition, the transdermal delivery of testosterone from an ethosomal patch was greater both in vitro and in vivo than from commercially available patches. Skin permeation of ethosomal components, ethanol and phospholipid, was demonstrated in diffusion-cell experiments. Ethosomal systems composed of soy phosphatidylcholine 2%, ethanol 30% and water were shown by electron microscopy to contain multilamellar vesicles. 31P-NMR studies confirmed the bilayer configuration of the lipids. Calorimetry and fluorescence measurements suggested that the vesicular bilayers are flexible, having a relatively low T(m) and fluorescence anisotropy compared with liposomes obtained in the absence of ethanol. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that ethanol imparted a negative charge to the vesicles. The average vesicle size, as measured by dynamic light scattering, was modulated by altering the ethosome composition. Experiments using fluorescent probes and ultracentrifugation showed that the ethosomes had a high entrapment capacity for molecules of various lyophilicities.

  2. Dyatlovitskaya E.V., Bergelson L.D. (1987). Glycosphingolipids and antitumor immunity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 907 (2), 125–43 ID:220
  3. Bergelson L.D., Molotkovsky J.G., Manevich Y.M. (1985). Lipid-specific fluorescent probes in studies of biological membranes. Chem. Phys. Lipids 37 (2), 165–95 [+]

    Lipid-specific fluorescent probes are natural lipids carrying an apolar fluorophore in one of the hydrocarbon chains. Since such probes retain the head groups and resemble the molecular shape of native membrane lipids, they largely mimic the behaviour of their natural prototypes in biological membranes. Information provided by the lipid-specific probes is more differentiated and easier to interpret than that obtained from non-lipid probes. The principles of design of lipid-specific probes are formulated and the relative advantages and disadvantages of various fluorophores are discussed. In order to reduce ambiguities caused by perturbation of the probe environment, it is proposed to use, in a comparative manner, two or more lipid-specific probes resembling each other in all aspects except the polar head groups (the 'two probes' concept). Two types of fluorophores, the anthrylvinyl group and the perylenoyl group, were found to be well suited for the synthesis of lipid-specific probes. Use of both types of probes 'in tandem' opens new possibilities for studying lipid-protein and lipid-lipid interactions in biological membranes. The anthrylvinyl- and perylenoyl-labeled lipids were applied in studies of serum lipoproteins and erythrocyte membranes. A new highly sensitive ligand-receptor binding assay and a new approach to biological signal amplifying based on the use of lipid-specific probes are described.

  4. Molotkovsky J.G., Manevich Y.M., Babak V.I., Bergelson L.D. (1984). Perylenoyl- and anthrylvinyl-labeled lipids as membrane probes.  (778), 281–288 [+]

    A new family of fluorescent lipid probes labeled at apolar part of molecule with 9-anthrylvinyl or 3-perylenoyl fluorophore is described. It has been shown that anthrylvinyl, being a good acceptor of excitation energy from protein fluorophores, allows to study lipid-protein interactions. Perylenoyl fluorophore is an effective acceptor of anthrylvinyl excitation; combined use of both type probes makes possible to study lipid-lipid interactions. Also, perylenoyl emission parameters are sensitive to the environment polarity thus giving additional potential in membrane investigations.

  5. Batrakov S.G., Bergelson L.D. (1978). Lipids of the Streptomycettes. Structural investigation and biological interrelation. Review. Chem. Phys. Lipids 21 (1-2), 1–29 [+]

    Structures and supposed functions of a new class of bacterial ornithine lipids were described in the review

  6. Molotkovsky J.G., Bergelson L.D. (1973). Synthesis of unsaturated mixed acid phosphatidylinositol of natural configuration. A new procedure for resolving racemic alcohols.  (11), 135–147 [+]

    A synthesis of unsaturated phosphatidylinositol of natural structure was performed for the first time. In the course of this study a new method for resolving to antipodes of racemic labile alcohols (myo-inositol pentaacetate here) was elaborated.

  7. Bergelson L.D. (1972). Tumor lipids. Progress in the chemistry of fats and other lipids 13 (1), 1–59 ID:223
  8. Bystrov V.F., Dubrovina N.I., Barsukov L.I., Bergelson L.D. (1971). NMR differentiation of the internal and external phospholipid membrane surfaces using paramagnetic Mn2+ and Eu3+ ions. Chem. Phys. Lipids 6 (4), 343–350 [+]

    The effect of paramagnetic Mn2+ and Eu3+ ions on the NMR spectra of sonicated lecithin dispersions in water and benzene has been investigated. In aqueous dispersions containing paramagnetic ions the N+(CH3)3 signal of the lecithin molecules in the lipid bilayer consists of two components, one broadened by Mn2+ and shifted to high field by Eu3+ must correspond to molecules in the external surface in contact with the bulk salt solution, and the other corresponding to internal lecithin molecules in contact with the ion free internal aqueous phase. Thus the external and internal surfaces of a lecithin containing membrane can be discriminated. The rates of exchange of the paramagnetic ions, of the lecithin and the water molecules between micelles and/or between micelles and external medium have been evaluated.

  9. Bergelson L.D., Dyatlovitskaya E.V., Torkhovskaya T.I., Sorokina I.B., Gorkova N.P. (1968). Dedifferentiation of phospholipid composition in subcellular particles of cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2 (2), 87–90 [+]

    In this pioneer work, the phenomenon of phospholipid dedifferentiation (composition leveling) in the tumor cell organelles was described for the first time.

  10. Bergelson L.D., Vaver V.A., Prokazova N.V., Ushakov A.N., Popkova G.A. (1966). Diol lipids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 116 (3), 511–20 [+]

    In the first review on the recently discovered diol lipids, the data on their structures and distribution in natural sources are summarized, and a hypothesis of their metabolic role is expressed.

  11. Шемякин М.М., Бергельсон Л.Д., Барсуков Л.И., Вавер В.А. (1963). Стереохимия и механизм реакции Виттига. Известия АН СССР. ОХН. 6, 1053–1063 ID:170
  12. Назимов И.Н., Бергельсон Л.Д. (1950). Синтезы стероидных гормонов. Успехи химии 19, 88–124 ID:1021