Ерошкин Федор Михайлович

Избранные публикации

  1. Eroshkin F.M., Zaraisky A.G. (2017). Mechano-sensitive regulation of gene expression during the embryonic development. Genesis , [+]

    Cell movements during embryogenesis produce mechanical tensions that shape the embryo and can also regulate gene expression, thereby affecting cell differentiation. Increasing evidence indicates that mechano-sensitive regulation of gene expression plays important roles during embryogenesis by coupling the processes of morphogenesis and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that "translate" mechanical stimuli into gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayramov A.V., Ermakova G.V., Eroshkin F.M., Kucheryavyy A.V., Martynova N.Y., Zaraisky A.G. (2016). The presence of Anf/Hesx1 homeobox gene in lampreys suggests that it could play an important role in emergence of telencephalon. Sci Rep 6, 39849 [+]

    Accumulated evidence indicates that the core genetic mechanisms regulating early patterning of the brain rudiment in vertebrates are very similar to those operating during development of the anterior region of invertebrate embryos. However, the mechanisms underlying the morphological differences between the elaborate vertebrate brain and its simpler invertebrate counterpart remain poorly understood. Recently, we hypothesized that the emergence of the most anterior unit of the vertebrate brain, the telencephalon, could be related to the appearance in vertebrates' ancestors of a unique homeobox gene, Anf/Hesx1(further Anf), which is absent from all invertebrates and regulates the earliest steps of telencephalon development in vertebrates. However, the failure of Anf to be detected in one of the most basal extant vertebrate species, the lamprey, seriously compromises this hypothesis. Here, we report the cloning of Anf in three lamprey species and demonstrate that this gene is indeed expressed in embryos in the same pattern as in other vertebrates and executes the same functions by inhibiting the expression of the anterior general regulator Otx2 in favour of the telencephalic regulator FoxG1. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Anf homeobox gene may have been important in the evolution of the telencephalon.

  3. Eroshkin F.M., Nesterenko A.M., Borodulin A.V., Martynova N.Y., Ermakova G.V., Gyoeva F.K., Orlov E.E., Belogurov A.A. Jr, Lukyanov K.A., Bayramov A.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2016). Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis. Sci Rep 6, 23049 [+]

    Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development.

  4. Suntsova M., Gogvadze E.V., Salozhin S., Gaifullin N., Eroshkin F., Dmitriev S.E., Martynova N., Kulikov K., Malakhova G., Tukhbatova G., Bolshakov A.P., Ghilarov D., Garazha A., Aliper A., Cantor C.R., Solokhin Y., Roumiantsev S., Balaban P., Zhavoronkov A., Buzdin A. (2013). Human-specific endogenous retroviral insert serves as an enhancer for the schizophrenia-linked gene PRODH. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , [+]

    Using a systematic, whole-genome analysis of enhancer activity of human-specific endogenous retroviral inserts (hsERVs), we identified an element, hsERVPRODH, that acts as a tissue-specific enhancer for the PRODH gene, which is required for proper CNS functioning. PRODH is one of the candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and other neurological disorders. It codes for a proline dehydrogenase enzyme, which catalyses the first step of proline catabolism and most likely is involved in neuromediator synthesis in the CNS. We investigated the mechanisms that regulate hsERVPRODH enhancer activity. We showed that the hsERVPRODH enhancer and the internal CpG island of PRODH synergistically activate its promoter. The enhancer activity of hsERVPRODH is regulated by methylation, and in an undermethylated state it can up-regulate PRODH expression in the hippocampus. The mechanism of hsERVPRODH enhancer activity involves the binding of the transcription factor SOX2, whch is preferentially expressed in hippocampus. We propose that the interaction of hsERVPRODH and PRODH may have contributed to human CNS evolution.

  5. Martynova N.Y., Ermolina L.V., Ermakova G.V., Eroshkin F.M., Gyoeva F.K., Baturina N.S., Zaraisky A.G. (2013). The cytoskeletal protein Zyxin inhibits Shh signaling during the CNS patterning in Xenopus laevis through interaction with the transcription factor Gli1. Dev. Biol. 380 (1), 37–48 [+]

    Zyxin is a cytoskeletal protein that controls cell movements by regulating actin filaments assembly, but it can also modulate gene expression owing to its interactions with the proteins involved in signaling cascades. Therefore, identification of proteins that interact with Zyxin in embryonic cells is a promising way to unravel mechanisms responsible for coupling of two major components of embryogenesis: morphogenetic movements and cell differentiation. Now we show that in Xenopus laevis embryos Zyxin can bind to and suppress activity of the primary effector of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade, the transcription factor Gli1. By using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that Zyxin is essential for reduction of Shh signaling within the dorsal part of the neural tube of X. laevis embryo. Thus, our finding discloses a novel function of Zyxin in fine tuning of the central neural system patterning which is based on the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of Shh signaling.

  6. Borodulin A.V., Eroshkin F.M., Bayramov A.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2012). Noggin4 expression during chick embryonic development. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 56 (5), 403–6 [+]

    We describe here the expression pattern of Noggin4 during the early development of the chick embryo (Gallus gallus). The expression of this gene starts with the onset of gastrulation (stage HH4), in two bilateral bands along the primitive streak, with a local maximum around Hensens node. By the end of gastrulation, Noggin4 transcripts are distributed diffusely throughout the epiblast, with the highest concentration in the head ectoderm. Interestingly, the expression of Noggin4 during the first half of gastrulation demonstrates a clear left-right asymmetry in Hensens node, being much more intensive in its right anterior portion. During neurulation, Noggin4 is expressed mainly in the neuroectoderm, with the most intensive expression in the head and lateral neural folds. In mesoderm derivatives, expression is seen in somites but not in the notochord. In general, primarily ectodermal and diffusive expression of Noggin4 in chick embryo, with a maximum in the anterior neurectoderm, resembles that of its ortholog in Xenopus, which indicates a conservative function of this gene in evolution.

  7. Bayramov A.V., Eroshkin F.M., Martynova N.Y., Ermakova G.V., Solovieva E.A., Zaraisky A.G. (2011). Novel functions of Noggin proteins: inhibition of Activin/Nodal and Wnt signaling. Development 138 (24), 5345–56 [+]

    The secreted protein Noggin1 is an embryonic inducer that can sequester TGFβ cytokines of the BMP family with extremely high affinity. Owing to this function, ectopic Noggin1 can induce formation of the headless secondary body axis in Xenopus embryos. Here, we show that Noggin1 and its homolog Noggin2 can also bind, albeit less effectively, to ActivinB, Nodal/Xnrs and XWnt8, inactivation of which, together with BMP, is essential for the head induction. In support of this, we show that both Noggin proteins, if ectopically produced in sufficient concentrations in Xenopus embryo, can induce a secondary head, including the forebrain. During normal development, however, Noggin1 mRNA is translated in the presumptive forebrain with low efficiency, which provides the sufficient protein concentration for only its BMP-antagonizing function. By contrast, Noggin2, which is produced in cells of the anterior margin of the neural plate at a higher concentration, also protects the developing forebrain from inhibition by ActivinB and XWnt8 signaling. Thus, besides revealing of novel functions of Noggin proteins, our findings demonstrate that specification of the forebrain requires isolation of its cells from BMP, Activin/Nodal and Wnt signaling not only during gastrulation but also at post-gastrulation stages.

  8. Martynova N.U., Ermolina L.V., Eroshkin F.M., Zarayskiy A.G. (2009). [The Cytoskelrtal Protein Zvxin Interacts with the Hedgehog Receptor Patched]. Bioorg. Khim. 41 (6), 744–8 [+]

    Earlier, we demonstrated Zyxin influence upon Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway during early patterning of the central neural system (CNS) anlage of the Xenopus laevis embryo. Now we show that Zyxin can physically interact with the transmembrane receptor of Hh, Patched2 (Ptc2). Binding of Hh by this receptor activates signaling pathway, which regulates many events, including numerous types of cell differentiation during the embryonic development. In particular, patterning of the CNS anlage. The ability of Zyxin to interact with Ptc2 have been confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments, in which we tested mutual binding affinity of Zyxin and Ptc2, as well as mutual affinity of their deletion mutants. As a result, we have established that in Xenopus levis, Zyxin binding to Ptc2 is due to the interaction of Zyxin 2nd LIM-domain (530-590 aa) with the under-membrane region of the cytoplasmic C-terminus of Ptc2 (1159-1412 aa). We have also demonstrated that similar interaction is valid for the homologous regions of the human Zyxin and human Hh receptor, Ptc1. The data obtained allow to hypothesize existence of evolutionary conserved mechanism that modulates Hh-signaling and based on the interaction of Zyxin with Ptc.

  9. Martynova N.I.u., Ermolina L.V., Eroshkin F.M., Gioeva F.K., Zaraĭskiĭ A.G. (2009). [Transcriptional factor Xanf1 interacts with the focal adhesion protein zyxin in the early development of the Xenopus laevis brain]. Bioorg. Khim. 34 (4), 573–6 [+]

    We searched for potential protein partners of the homeodomain transcription repressor Xanf1, a key transcriptional regulator of the early development of the forebrain, using a yeast two-hybrid system and identified for the first time the LIM domain protein zyxin from the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. This protein is interesting because it can play the role of a signal transmitter from cell receptors to the cell nucleus and, thus, participate in the regulation of cell morphogenetic movements and gene expression. The interaction of zyxin with Xanf1 was confirmed by the immunoprecipitation of a complex of endogenous zyxin with the hybrid myc-Xanf1 protein from the lysate of X. laevis embryos. Using a set of deletion mutants of both proteins, we found that binding of the LIM2 domain of zyxin with the Engrailed Homology 1 repressor domain of Xanf1 is responsible for the interaction of these proteins.

  10. Eroshkin F.M., Bairamov A.V., Martynova N.I.u., Zaraĭskiĭ A.G. (2009). [Using of the luciferase reporter constructs for investigation of the capacity of Noggin2 protein to inhibit cell signaling pathways in early Xenopus laevis embryos]. Bioorg. Khim. 38 (3), 385–8 [+]

    Noggin (Noggin1) protein inhibits Smad1-dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway by extracellular binding of BMP proteins. Recently we found two previously unknown representatives of Noggin family - Noggin2 and Noggin4. Here we investigate by using the luciferase reporter constructs the ability of Noggin2 to inhibit BMP-, Activin/Nodal- and Wnt-signaling pathways in the early Xenopus laevis embryos. The effectiveness of this inhibitory activity of Noggin2 is comparing with that of well-known inhibitors of the indicated pathways - the secreted proteins Cerberus and Follistatin. Besides revealing of novel properties of Noggin2, our findings demonstrate that luciferase-reporter assay is as a useful tool for signaling pathways investigation in the model of Xenopus embryos.

  11. Eroshkin F.M., Bairamov A.V., Averianova O.V., Soloveva E.A., Serebriakova M.V., Zaraĭskiĭ A.G., Martynova N.I.u. (2009). [The obtaining and analysis of physiological activity of secreted proteins of Noggin family]. Bioorg. Khim. 39 (2), 247–52 [+]

    We have developed methods for producing recombinant proteins of Noggin family (Noggin1 and Noggin2 of the Xenopus laevis frog) that can interact with BMP factors of TGF-beta superfamily. The genetic constructs which allow one to effectively obtain Noggin1 and Noggin2 from synthetic mRNA microinjected into Xenopus laevis early embryos, as well as in the prokaryotic expression system, were generated. The obtained proteins contain three Myc-tag epitopes on their N-terminus. This allow one to compare the expression levels of Noggin1 and Noggin 2 constructs, to purify them on the affine immunosorbent and to show the activity of Noggin proteins by analyzing their ability to bind BMP4 factor TGF-beta surperfamily by co-immunoprecipitation.

  12. Eroshkin F.M., Fedina N.V., Martynova N.Y., Bayramov A.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2009). [The Point Mutation in NOGGIN2 Protein That Enhances Its Ability to Bind Activin]. Bioorg. Khim. 41 (6), 749–51 [+]

    Earlier we have revealed the ability of Noggin family proteins to bind a member of the TUF-β superfamily, ActivinB, and to repress the Activin-dependent Smad2 signaling cascade. In the present work we have characterized a mutant of the Xenopus laevis Noggin2, bearing the substitution W203R. We have shown that this point mutation enhances the affinity of Noggin2 to ActivinB, while weakens its affinity to BMP. Consistently, we have shown that W203 R mutant inhibits Smad2 signaling cascade more efficiently than the wild-type Noggin2. Interestingly, the mutation of human Noggin in the homologous position is associated with hereditary anomalies. The revealed effects of W203R substitution in Noggin2 demonstrate promising potential of such mutagenesis for generation of Noggin variants with enhanced affinity to different members of the TGF-β superfamily.

  13. Martynova N.Y., Eroshkin F.M., Ermolina L.V., Ermakova G.V., Korotaeva A.L., Smurova K.M., Gyoeva F.K., Zaraisky A.G. (2008). The LIM-domain protein Zyxin binds the homeodomain factor Xanf1/Hesx1 and modulates its activity in the anterior neural plate of Xenopus laevis embryo. Dev. Dyn. 237 (3), 736–49 [+]

    The question of how subdivision of embryo into cell territories acquiring different fates is coordinated with morphogenetic movements shaping the embryonic body still remains poorly resolved. In the present report, we demonstrate that a key regulator of anterior neural plate patterning, the homeodomain transcriptional repressor Xanf1/Hesx1, can bind to the LIM-domain protein Zyxin, which is known to regulate cell morphogenetic movements via influence on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Using a set of deletion mutants, we found that the Engrailed-type repressor domain of Xanf1 and LIM2-domain of Zyxin are primarily responsible for interaction of these proteins. We also demonstrate that Zyxin overexpression in Xenopus embryos elicits effects similar to those observed in embryos with downregulated Xanf1. In contrast, when the repressor-fused variant of Zyxin is expressed, the forebrain enlargements typical for embryos overexpressing Xanf1 develop. These results are consistent with a possible role of Zyxin as a negative modulator of Xanf1 transcriptional repressing activity.

  14. Eroshkin F.M., Ermakova G.V., Bayramov A.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2006). Multiple noggins in vertebrate genome: cloning and expression of noggin2 and noggin4 in Xenopus laevis. Gene Expr. Patterns 6 (2), 180–6 [+]

    Noggin is a neural inducer secreted by cells of the Spemann organizer. A single noggin gene was identified until very recently in all tested vertebrates. The only exception was zebrafish, in which two close homologs of noggin, named noggin1 and noggin3, and one gene more diverged from them, noggin2, were cloned. Nevertheless, finding of three zebrafish noggins was attributed exclusively to specific genomic duplications in the fish evolutionary branch. However, very recently it was shown that Xenopus tropicalis have additional noggin homolog, called noggin2 [Fletcher, R.B., Watson, A.L., Harland, R.M. (2004). Expression of Xenopus tropicalis noggin1 and noggin2 in early development: two noggin genes in a tetrapod. Gene Expr. Patterns 5, 225-230], which indicates at least two independent noggin genes in vertebrate phylum. Now we report identification of two novel noggin homologs in each of so evolutionary distant species as Xenopus laevis, chicken and fugu. One of these noggins is ortholog of the X. tropicalis and zebrafish noggin2, whereas another, named noggin4, was not known previously. In the X. laevis embryos, the expression of noggin2 very resembles that of its counterpart in X. tropicalis: it begins with neurulation at the anterior margin of the neural plate and, afterward, continues mainly in the forebrain and dorsal hindbrain. At the same time, noggin4 is expressed starting from the beginning of gastrulation, throughout the ectoderm, with a local expression maximum in the prospective anterior neurectoderm. Later, it is widely expressed on the dorsal side of embryo, including neural tube, eyes, otic vesicles, cranial placodes, branchial arches, and somites. The data presented here demonstrate that the vertebrate phylum contains at least three distinct noggin genes.

  15. Bayramov A.V., Martynova N.Y., Eroshkin F.M., Ermakova G.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2004). The homeodomain-containing transcription factor X-nkx-5.1 inhibits expression of the homeobox gene Xanf-1 during the Xenopus laevis forebrain development. Mech. Dev. 121 (12), 1425–41 [+]

    Expression of the homeobox gene Xanf-1 starts within the presumptive forebrain primordium of the Xenopus embryo at the midgastrula stage and is inhibited by the late neurula. Such stage-specific inhibition is essential for the normal development as the experimental prolongation of the Xanf-1 expression elicits severe brain abnormalities. To identify transcriptional regulators that are responsible for the Xanf-1 inhibition, we have used the yeast one-hybrid system and identified a novel Xenopus homeobox gene X-nkx-5.1 that belongs to a family of Nkx-5.1 transcription factors. In terms of gene expression, X-nkx-5.1 shares many common features with its orthologs in other species, including expression in the embryonic brain and in the ciliated cells of the otic and lateral line placodes. However, we have also observed several features specific for X-nkx-5.1, such as expression in precursors of the epidermal ciliated cells that may indicate a possible common evolutionary origin of all ciliated cells derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Another specific feature is that the X-nkx-5.1 expression in the anterior neural plate starts early, within the area overlapping the Xanf-1 expression territory at the midneurula stage, and it correlates with the beginning of the Xanf-1 inhibition. Using various loss and gain-of-function techniques, including microinjections of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and mRNA encoding for the X-nkx-5.1 and its dominant repressor and activator versions, we have shown that X-nkx-5.1 can indeed play a role of stage-specific inhibitor of Xanf-1 in the anterior neural plate during the Xenopus development.

  16. Martynova N., Eroshkin F., Ermakova G., Bayramov A., Gray J., Grainger R., Zaraisky A. (2004). Patterning the forebrain: FoxA4a/Pintallavis and Xvent2 determine the posterior limit of Xanf1 expression in the neural plate. Development 131 (10), 2329–38 [+]

    During early development of the nervous system in vertebrates, expression of the homeobox gene Anf/Hesx1/Rpx is restricted to the anterior neural plate subdomain corresponding to the presumptive forebrain. This expression is essential for normal forebrain development and ectopic expression of Xenopus Anf, Xanf1 (also known as Xanf-1), results in severe forebrain abnormalities. By use of transgenic embryos and a novel bi-colour reporter technique, we have identified a cis-regulatory element responsible for transcriptional repression of Xanf1 that defines its posterior expression limit within the neural plate. Using this element as the target in a yeast one-hybrid system, we identified two transcription factors, FoxA4a/Pintallavis and Xvent2 (also known as Xvent-2), which are normally expressed posterior to Xanf1. Overexpression of normal and dominant-negative versions of these factors, as well as inhibition of their mRNA translation by antisense morpholinos, show that they actually function as transcriptional repressors of Xanf1 just behind its posterior expression limit. The extremely high similarity of the identified Anf cis-regulatory sequences in Xenopus, chick and human, indicates that the mechanism restricting posterior expression of Anf in Xenopus is shared among vertebrates. Our findings support Nieuwkoop's activation-transformation model for neural patterning, according to which the entire neurectoderm is initially specified towards an anterior fate, which is later suppressed posteriorly as part of the trunk formation process.

  17. Eroshkin F., Kazanskaya O., Martynova N., Zaraisky A. (2002). Characterization of cis-regulatory elements of the homeobox gene Xanf-1. Gene 285 (1-2), 279–86 [+]

    Investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying early patterning of the nervous system is an important task of modern developmental biology. Previously, we identified a novel homeobox gene, Anf, that is expressed in the most anterior zone at the beginning of neuroectoderm specification. The expression pattern of Anf corresponds to primordia of the telencephalon and the rostral part of the diencephalon. In the present work, we investigated cis-regulation of expression of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf-1. Two elements, highly conserved in Xenopus, chick and human, were identified within the Xanf-1 promoter region. The first element, located near position -500, is necessary for overall enhancement of the Xanf-1 expression. The second element, near position -200, is crucial for maintenance of the Xanf-1 expression at moderate levels and also for specific localization of the expression in the anterior neuroectoderm. Thus, the distal part of this element is responsible for suppression of Xanf-1 posterior to the normal expression domain of this gene. The data obtained corroborate with the Nieuwkoop two-signal model of neural induction. This model states that at the first step of induction, all neuroectoderm acquires potencies to develop toward forebrain structures, but later these potencies are suppressed in posterior regions.