Molecular mechanisms of regulation of the macrophage activity
This review systematized modern conceptions of the most frequently occurring types of macrophage activation. Mechanisms of induction and regulation of these three types of activation were discussed. Any macrophage population was shown to easily change its properties depending on its microenvironment and concrete biological situation (functional plasticity of macrophages). Many intermediate functional states of macrophages were described, along with the most pronounced and well-known activation states (classical activation, alternative activation, and type II activation). These intermediate states were characterized by various compositions of their biological properties, including elements of all the three aforementioned types of activation. Macrophage activity was shown to be regulated by a complex network of interrelated cascade mechanisms. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.