Long-Term Fate of Magnetic Particles in Mice: A Comprehensive Study.
Safe application of nanoparticles in medicine requires full understanding of their pharmacokinetics including catabolism in the organism. However, information about nanoparticle degradation is still scanty due to difficulty of long-term measurements by invasive techniques. Here, we describe a magnetic spectral approach for monitoring of magnetic particle (MP) degradation. The method noninvasiveness has allowed performing of a broad comprehensive study of the 1-year fate of 17 types of iron oxide particles. We show a long-lasting influence of five parameters on the MP degradation half-life: dose, hydrodynamic size, ζ-potential, surface coating, and internal architecture. We observed a slowdown in MP biotransformation with an increase of the injected dose and faster degradation of the particles of a small hydrodynamic size. A comparison of six types of 100 nm particles coated by different hydrophilic polymer shells has shown that the slowest ( = 38 ± 6 days) and the fastest ( = 15 ± 4 days) degradations were achieved with a polyethylene glycol and polyglucuronic acid coatings, respectively. The most significant influence on the MP degradation was due to the internal architecture of the particles as the coverage of magnetic cores with a solid 39 nm polystyrene layer slowed down the half-life of the core-shell MPs from 48 days to more than 1 year. The revealed deeper insights into the particle degradation may facilitate rational design of nano- and microparticles with predictable long-term fate .