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  • science news The molecular mechanism of body axis induction in jawless vertebrates may differ from that described in gnathostomes February 26

    A significant proportion of modern ideas about the molecular mechanisms of body axis induction and differentiation of vertebrate embryos are based on studies of classical laboratory model objects - fishes, amphibians and mammals - that belong to only one of the two major clades of extant vertebrates - gnathostomes. In these animals, genes of Noggin family have been described as key embryonic inducers of the main body axis.

  • science news The loss of the classical embryonic inducer noggin1 in cartilaginous fish may be associated with the formation of their unique skeleton February 19

    The discovery of the neural inducer Noggin1 in 1992 was one of the most important events in the history of molecular developmental biology. Subsequently, several genes of the Noggin family were discovered and described in vertebrates, which appeared as a result of genomic duplications in ancestral vertebrates and differed in their expression patterns and functional properties. A series of studies carried out at the Laboratory of Molecular Bases of Embryogenesis of the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2006-2020, was devoted to the study of Noggins in vertebrates. The key roles of Noggins in the regulation of intracellular signaling cascades and a wide range of developmental processes, including the development of the telencephalon unique to vertebrates, have been demonstrated.

  • science news CRISPR/Cas9-mediated мultiplexed multi-allelic mutagenesis of genes located on A, B and R subgenomes of hexaploid triticale February 12

    This research, performed by the members of the Laboratory of Expression Systems and Plant Genome Modification (BIOTRON), Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, together with colleagues from the All-Russia Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, reports the first time production of edited hexaploid triticale (× Triticosecale) through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated multiplexed induction of multilocular mutations in genes associated with starch biosynthesis.

  • science news Obtaining Gene-Modified HLA-E-Expressing Feeder Cells for Stimulation of Natural Killer Cells February 2

    In response to cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a pool of specialized “adaptive” NK cells with immunological memory traits develops in humans. This process is based on the recognition of HCMV peptides presented in the context of the HLA-E molecule by the activating receptor NKG2C. Using retroviral transduction, members of the Laboratory of Cell Interactions of the Immunology Department, IBCH RAS, together with colleagues from the European Medical Center, obtained K562-21E feeder cells expressing HLA-E and identified a subpopulation, whose size is associated with the magnitude of NK cell proliferative response to the presentation of the HCMV peptide. The K562-21E cells can be applied both for the accumulation of HCMV-specific NK cells and for studying the adaptive cells maturation.  

  • science news Multiple paralogs of foxg1, the regulator of forebrain development, in lampreys and sturgeons: the legacy of genomic duplications in the early evolution of vertebrates January 25

    The forebrain of vertebrates, including its unique rostral section, the telencephalon, provides the highest forms of nervous activity in animals and humans. The foxg1 gene has been described as one of the leading regulators of early forebrain development. It has been shown that disturbances in the expression of foxg1 lead to developmental abnormalities and a decrease in the size of the forebrain, called FOXG1 syndrome in humans.  

  • science news Hydrogen peroxide is not generated intracellularly in human neural spheroids during ischemia-reperfusion January 23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a primary source of damage during an ischemic stroke. Studies on this subject are usually performed on either cell culture or animal models, which can make it difficult to translate the results to humans. Currently, 3D neurospheroids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are proposed as an optimal alternative for modeling disease conditions.

  • science news Age-dependent astrocytic atrophy and mitochondrial malfunction in human neocortex December 25, 2023

    In this groundbreaking study researchers have delved into the intricate cellular changes occurring in the brains of aging adults. The study, conducted on neocortical tissue from individuals aged 22 to 72 years, provides unprecedented insights into the impact of aging on astrocytes and neurons.

  • science news A non-canonical RNAi pathway induced by externally applied virus-specific dsRNA in plants December 7, 2023

    The external application of dsRNAh has recently been developed as a new approach for crop protection. It is assumed that the mechanism of dsRNA-mediated antivirus RNA defence is similar to that of natural RNA interference (RNAi). There is, however, no direct evidence to support this idea. Scientists from the IBCh RAS in collaboration with colleagues from JHI (UK) we carried out the analysis of small RNAs (sRNA) as hallmarks of RNAi induced by potato virus Y (PVY).

  • science news Redox differences between neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes under hypoxia December 4, 2023

    It is a known fact that oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. However, why do neonatal cardiomyocytes exhibit greater resistance to hypoxia compared to adult cell types?

  • science news Venom-gland transcriptomics and venom proteomics of the Tibellus oblongus spider November 28, 2023

    The Scientific Data journal published the paper “Transcriptomics of Venom Glands and Proteomics of Venom of the Spider Tibellus Oblongus,” which describes a comprehensive study of the venom of the Central Asian spider. As a result of the analysis of the transcriptome of the venom glands and the venom proteome, more than 200 new peptide molecules were discovered, including both toxins with a classical organization and with unique structural motifs.

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