Мишин Александр Сергеевич

Избранные публикации

  1. Klementieva N.V., Pavlikov A.I., Moiseev A.A., Bozhanova N.G., Mishina N.M., Lukyanov S.A., Zagaynova E.V., Lukyanov K.A., Mishin A.S. (2017). Intrinsic blinking of red fluorescent proteins for super-resolution microscopy. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 53 (5), 949–951 [+]

    Single-molecule localization microscopy relies on either controllable photoswitching of fluorescent probes or their robust blinking. We have found that blinking of monomeric red fluorescent proteins TagRFP, TagRFP-T, and FusionRed occurs at moderate illumination power and matches well with camera acquisition speed. It allows for super-resolution image reconstruction of densely labelled structures in live cells using various algorithms.

  2. Klementieva N.V., Lukyanov K.A., Markina N.M., Lukyanov S.A., Zagaynova E.V., Mishin A.S. (2016). Green-to-red primed conversion of Dendra2 using blue and red lasers. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52 (89), 13144–13146 [+]

    Recently, an unusual phenomenon of primed conversion of fluorescent protein Dendra2 by combined action of blue (488 nm) and near-infrared (700-780 nm) lasers was discovered. Here we demonstrate that primed conversion can be induced by red lasers (630-650 nm) common for most confocal and single molecule detection microscopes.

  3. Klementieva N.V., Snopova L.B., Prodanets N.N., Furman O.E., Dudenkova V.V., Zagaynova E.V., Lukyanov K.A., Mishin A.S. (2016). Fluorescence Imaging of Actin Fine Structure in Tumor Tissues Using SiR-Actin Staining. Anticancer Res. 36 (10), 5287–5294 [+]


    The rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton is being increasingly considered a marker of cancer cell activity, but the fine structure and remodeling of microfilaments within tumor tissue still remains unclear.


    We used the recently introduced silicon-rhodamine (SiR)-actin dye to visualize endogenous actin within tissues by confocal or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We established imaging conditions for robust blinking of SiR-actin, which makes this dye applicable for super-resolution localization microscopy, as well as for an efficient background elimination.


    We studied tumor tissue samples in two mouse models at high resolution and revealed a complex network of thick curved bundles of actin in cancer cells in tumors. This actin pattern differed strongly from that in cancer cells in vitro and in normal tissues.


    Localization microscopy with SiR-actin provides an efficient way to visualize fine actin structure in tumor tissues. It is potentially applicable to a variety of biological and clinical samples.

  4. Sarkisyan K.S., Bolotin D.A., Meer M.V., Usmanova D.R., Mishin A.S., Sharonov G.V., Ivankov D.N., Bozhanova N.G., Baranov M.S., Soylemez O., Bogatyreva N.S., Vlasov P.K., Egorov E.S., Logacheva M.D., Kondrashov A.S., Chudakov D.M., Putintseva E.V., Mamedov I.Z., Tawfik D.S., Lukyanov K.A., Kondrashov F.A. (2016). Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein. Nature 533 (7603), 397–401 [+]

    Fitness landscapes depict how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level and form the basis of our understanding of many areas of biology, yet their properties remain elusive. Previous studies have analysed specific genes, often using their function as a proxy for fitness, experimentally assessing the effect on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence or in different sequences. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported. Here we visualize an extensive region of the local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) by measuring the native function (fluorescence) of tens of thousands of derivative genotypes of avGFP. We show that the fitness landscape of avGFP is narrow, with 3/4 of the derivatives with a single mutation showing reduced fluorescence and half of the derivatives with four mutations being completely non-fluorescent. The narrowness is enhanced by epistasis, which was detected in up to 30% of genotypes with multiple mutations and mostly occurred through the cumulative effect of slightly deleterious mutations causing a threshold-like decrease in protein stability and a concomitant loss of fluorescence. A model of orthologous sequence divergence spanning hundreds of millions of years predicted the extent of epistasis in our data, indicating congruence between the fitness landscape properties at the local and global scales. The characterization of the local fitness landscape of avGFP has important implications for several fields including molecular evolution, population genetics and protein design.

  5. Povarova N.V., Bozhanova N.G., Sarkisyan K.S., Gritcenko R., Baranov M.S., Yampolsky I.V., Lukyanov K.A., Mishin A.S. (2016). Docking-guided identification of protein hosts for GFP chromophore-like ligands. J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 3036–3040 [+]

    Synthetic analogs of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore emerge as promising fluorogenic dyes for labeling in living systems. Here, we report the computational identification of protein hosts capable of binding to and enhancing fluorescence of GFP chromophore derivatives. Automated docking of GFP-like chromophores to over 3000 crystal structures of Escherichia coli proteins available in the Protein Data Bank allowed the identification of a set of candidate proteins. Four of these proteins were tested experimentally in vitro for binding with the GFP chromophore and its red-shifted Kaede chromophore-like analogs. Two proteins were found to possess sub-micromolar affinity for some Kaede-like chromophores and activate fluorescence of these fluorogens.

  6. Pletnev V.Z., Pletneva N.V., Sarkisyan K.S., Mishin A.S., Lukyanov K.A., Goryacheva E.A., Ziganshin R.H., Dauter Z., Pletnev S. (2015). Structure of the green fluorescent protein NowGFP with an anionic tryptophan-based chromophore. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 71 (Pt 8), 1699–707 [+]
  7. Walker C.L., Lukyanov K.A., Yampolsky I.V., Mishin A.S., Bommarius A.S., DurajThatte A.M., Azizi B., Tolbert L.M., Solntsev K.M. (2015). Fluorescence imaging using synthetic GFP chromophores. Curr Opin Chem Biol 27, 64–74 [+]

    Green fluorescent protein and related proteins carry chromophores formed within the protein from their own amino acids. Corresponding synthetic compounds are non-fluorescent in solution due to photoinduced isomerization of the benzylideneimidiazolidinone core. Restriction of this internal rotation by binding to host molecules leads to pronounced, up to three orders of magnitude, increase of fluorescence intensity. This property allows using GFP chromophore analogs as fluorogenic dyes to detect metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and other hosts. For example, RNA aptamer named Spinach, which binds to and activates fluorescence of some GFP chromophores, was proved to be a unique label for live-cell imaging of specific RNAs, endogenous metabolites and target proteins. Chemically locked GFP chromophores are brightly fluorescent and represent potentially useful dyes due to their small size and high water solubility.

  8. Sarkisyan K.S., Goryashchenko A.S., Lidsky P.V., Gorbachev D.A., Bozhanova N.G., Gorokhovatsky A.Y., Pereverzeva A.R., Ryumina A.P., Zherdeva V.V., Savitsky A.P., Solntsev K.M., Bommarius A.S., Sharonov G.V., Lindquist J.R., Drobizhev M., Hughes T.E., Rebane A., Lukyanov K.A., Mishin A.S. (2015). Green Fluorescent Protein with Anionic Tryptophan-Based Chromophore and Long Fluorescence Lifetime. Biophys. J. 109 (2), 380–9 [+]

    Spectral diversity of fluorescent proteins, crucial for multiparameter imaging, is based mainly on chemical diversity of their chromophores. Recently we have reported, to our knowledge, a new green fluorescent protein WasCFP-the first fluorescent protein with a tryptophan-based chromophore in the anionic state. However, only a small portion of WasCFP molecules exists in the anionic state at physiological conditions. In this study we report on an improved variant of WasCFP, named NowGFP, with the anionic form dominating at 37°C and neutral pH. It is 30% brighter than enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and exhibits a fluorescence lifetime of 5.1 ns. We demonstrated that signals of NowGFP and EGFP can be clearly distinguished by fluorescence lifetime in various models, including mammalian cells, mouse tumor xenograft, and Drosophila larvae. NowGFP thus provides an additional channel for multiparameter fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of green fluorescent proteins.

  9. Mishin A.S., Belousov V.V., Solntsev K.M., Lukyanov K.A. (2015). Novel uses of fluorescent proteins. Curr Opin Chem Biol 27, 1–9 [+]The field of genetically encoded fluorescent probes is developing rapidly. New chromophore structures were characterized in proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) family. A number of red fluorescent sensors, for example, for pH, Ca(2+) and H2O2, were engineered for multiparameter imaging. Progress in development of microscopy hardware and software together with specially designed FPs pushed superresolution fluorescence microscopy towards fast live-cell imaging. Deeper understanding of FPs structure and photophysics led to further development of imaging techniques. In addition to commonly used GFP-like proteins, unrelated types of FPs on the base of flavin-binding domains, bilirubin-binding domains or biliverdin-binding domains were designed. Their distinct biochemical and photophysical properties opened previously unexplored niches of FP uses such as labeling under anaerobic conditions, deep tissue imaging and even patients' blood analysis. ID:1293
  10. Mishina N.M., Mishin A.S., Belyaev Y., Bogdanova E.A., Lukyanov S., Schultz C., Belousov V.V. (2015). Live-Cell STED Microscopy with Genetically Encoded Biosensor. Nano Lett. 15 (5), 2928–2932 [+]

    Of the various super-resolution techniques, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy achieves the best temporal resolution at high spatial resolution, enabling live-cell imaging beyond the diffraction limit. However, STED and most other super-resolution imaging methods utilize a particular type of information extractable from the raw data, namely the positions of fluorophores. To expand on the use of super-resolution techniques, we report here the live-cell STED microscopy of a dynamic biosensor. Using the fluorescent H2O2 sensor HyPer2 for subdiffraction imaging, we were able not only to image filaments with superior resolution by localizing emission but also to trace H2O2 produced within living cell by monitoring brightness of the probe. STED microscopy of HyPer2 demonstrates potential utility of FP-based biosensors for super-resolution experiments in situ and in vivo.

  11. Pletneva N.V., Pletnev V.Z., Sarkisyan K.S., Egorov E.S., Mishin A.S., Lukyanov K.A., Dauter Z., Pletnev S. (2015). Crystal structure of phototoxic orange fluorescent proteins with a tryptophan-based chromophore. PLoS ONE , under revision [+]
  12. Sarkisyan K.S., Zlobovskaya O.A., Gorbachev D.A., Bozhanova N.G., Sharonov G.V., Staroverov D.B., Egorov E.S., Ryabova A.V., Solntsev K.M., Mishin A.S., Lukyanov K.A. (2015). KillerOrange, a Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer Activated by Blue and Green Light. PLoS ONE 10 (12), e0145287 [+]

    Genetically encoded photosensitizers, proteins that produce reactive oxygen species when illuminated with visible light, are increasingly used as optogenetic tools. Their applications range from ablation of specific cell populations to precise optical inactivation of cellular proteins. Here, we report an orange mutant of red fluorescent protein KillerRed that becomes toxic when illuminated with blue or green light. This new protein, KillerOrange, carries a tryptophan-based chromophore that is novel for photosensitizers. We show that KillerOrange can be used simultaneously and independently from KillerRed in both bacterial and mammalian cells offering chromatic orthogonality for light-activated toxicity.

  13. Pletneva N.V., Pletnev V.Z., Sarkisyan K.S., Gorbachev D.A., Egorov E.S., Mishin A.S., Lukyanov K.A., Dauter Z., Pletnev S. (2015). Crystal Structure of Phototoxic Orange Fluorescent Proteins with a Tryptophan-Based Chromophore. PLoS ONE 10 (12), e0145740 [+]

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. Here, we present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKillerOrange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enabling transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers.

  14. GeorgeAbraham B., Sarkisyan K.S., Mishin A.S., Santala V., Tkachenko N.V., Karp M. (2015). Fluorescent Protein Based FRET Pairs with Improved Dynamic Range for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements. PLoS ONE 10 (8), e0134436 [+]

    Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using fluorescent protein variants is widely used to study biochemical processes in living cells. FRET detection by fluorescence lifetime measurements is the most direct and robust method to measure FRET. The traditional cyan-yellow fluorescent protein based FRET pairs are getting replaced by green-red fluorescent protein variants. The green-red pair enables excitation at a longer wavelength which reduces cellular autofluorescence and phototoxicity while monitoring FRET. Despite the advances in FRET based sensors, the low FRET efficiency and dynamic range still complicates their use in cell biology and high throughput screening. In this paper, we utilized the higher lifetime of NowGFP and screened red fluorescent protein variants to develop FRET pairs with high dynamic range and FRET efficiency. The FRET variations were analyzed by proteolytic activity and detected by steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Based on the results, NowGFP-tdTomato and NowGFP-mRuby2 have shown high potentials as FRET pairs with large fluorescence lifetime dynamic range. The in vitro measurements revealed that the NowGFP-tdTomato has the highest Förster radius for any fluorescent protein based FRET pairs yet used in biological studies. The developed FRET pairs will be useful for designing FRET based sensors and studies employing Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM).

  15. Baranov M.S., Solntsev K.M., Baleeva N.S., Mishin A.S., Lukyanov S.A., Lukyanov K.A., Yampolsky I.V. (2014). Red-shifted fluorescent aminated derivatives of a conformationally locked GFP chromophore. Chem. Eur. J. 20 (41), 13234–41 [+]

    A novel class of fluorescent dyes based on conformationally locked GFP chromophore is reported. These dyes are characterized by red-shifted spectra, high fluorescence quantum yields and pH-independence in physiological pH range. The intra- and intermolecular mechanisms of radiationless deactivation of ABDI-BF2 fluorophore by selective structural locking of various conformational degrees of freedom were studied. A unique combination of solvatochromic and lipophilic properties together with "infinite" photostability (due to a dynamic exchange between free and bound dye) makes some of the novel dyes promising bioinspired tools for labeling cellular membranes, lipid drops and other organelles.

  16. Sarkisyan K.S., Yampolsky I.V., Solntsev K.M., Lukyanov S.A., Lukyanov K.A., Mishin A.S. (2012). Tryptophan-based chromophore in fluorescent proteins can be anionic. Sci Rep 2, 608 [+]

    Cyan fluorescent proteins (CFP) with tryptophan66-based chromophore are widely used for live cell imaging. In contrast to green and red fluorescent proteins, no charged states of the CFP chromophore have been described. Here, we studied synthetic CFP chromophore and found that its indole group can be deprotonated rather easily (pKa 12.4).We then reproduced this effect in the CFP mCerulean by placing basic amino acids in the chromophore microenvironment. As a result, green-emitting variant with an anionic chromophore and key substitution Val61Lys was obtained. This is the first evidence strongly suggesting that tryptophan-based chromophores in fluorescent proteins can exist in an anionic charged state. Switching between protonated and deprotonated Trp66 in fluorescent proteins represents a new unexplored way to control their spectral properties.

  17. Mamedov I.Z., Britanova O.V., Chkalina A.V., Staroverov D.B., Amosova A.L., Mishin A.S., Kurnikova M.A., Zvyagin I.V., Mutovina Z.Y., Gordeev A.V., Khaidukov S.V., Sharonov G.V., Shagin D.A., Chudakov D.M., Lebedev Y.B. (2009). Individual characterization of stably expanded T cell clones in ankylosing spondylitis patients. Autoimmunity 42 (6), 525–36 [+]

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is commonly characterized by clonal expansions of T cells. However, these clonal populations are poorly studied and their role in disease initiation and progression remains unclear. Here, we performed mass sequencing of TCR V beta libraries to search for the expanded T cell clones for two AS patients. A number of clones comprising more than 5% of the corresponding TCR V beta family were identified in both patients. For the first time, expanded clones were shown to be stably abundant in blood samples of AS patients for the prolonged period (1.5 and 2.5 years for two patients, correspondingly). These clones were individually characterized in respect to their differentiation status using fluorescent cell sorting with CD27, CD28, and CD45RA markers followed by quantitative identification of each clone within corresponding fraction using real time PCR analysis. Stable clones differed in phenotype and several were shown to belong to the proinflammatory CD27 - /CD28 - population. Their potentially cytotoxic status was confirmed by staining with perforin-specific antibodies. Search for the TCR V beta CRD3 sequences homologous to the identified clones revealed close matches with the previously reported T cell clones from AS and reactive arthritis patients, thus supporting their role in the disease and proposing consensus TCR V beta CDR3 motifs for AS. Interestingly, these motifs were also found to have homology with earlier reported virus-specific CDR3 variants, indicating that viral infections could play role in development of AS.

  18. Bogdanov A.M., Mishin A.S., Yampolsky I.V., Belousov V.V., Chudakov D.M., Subach F.V., Verkhusha V.V., Lukyanov S., Lukyanov K.A. (2009). Green fluorescent proteins are light-induced electron donors. Nat. Chem. Biol.  (5), 459–461 [+]

    Proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are well known owing to their unique biochemistry and extensive use as in vivo markers. We discovered that GFPs of diverse origins can act as light-induced electron donors in photochemical reactions with various electron acceptors, including biologically relevant ones. Moreover, via green-to-red GFP photoconversion, this process can be observed in living cells without additional treatment.

  19. Shkrob M.A., Mishin A.S., Chudakov D.M., Labas Iu.A., Lukianov K.A. (2009). [Chromoproteins of the green fluorescent protein family: properties and applications]. Bioorg. Khim. 34 (5), 581–90 [+]

    The distribution in nature and the spectral and structural properties of chromoproteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family and their differences from one another and other fluorescent proteins of this family are considered. Discussed in detail are practical applications of the chromoproteins and their mutant variants that have unique characteristics not found among natural proteins of the GFP family, such as far-red or photoconvertible fluorescence, a large Stokes shift, enhanced phototoxicity, etc.

  20. Mishin A.S., Subach F.V., Yampolsky I.V., King W., Lukyanov K.A., Verkhusha V.V. (2008). The first mutant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that forms a red chromophore. Biochemistry 47 (16), 4666–73 [+]

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, and its mutants are widely used in biomedical studies as fluorescent markers. In spite of the enormous efforts of academia and industry toward generating its red fluorescent mutants, no GFP variants with emission maximum at more than 529 nm have been developed during the 15 years since its cloning. Here, we used a new strategy of molecular evolution aimed at generating a red-emitting mutant of GFP. As a result, we have succeeded in producing the first GFP mutant that substantially matures to the red-emitting state with excitation and emission maxima at 555 and 585 nm, respectively. A novel, nonoxidative mechanism for formation of the red chromophore in this mutant that includes a dehydration of the Ser65 side chain has been proposed. Model experiments showed that the novel dual-color GFP mutant with green and red emission is suitable for multicolor flow cytometry as an additional color since it is clearly separable from both green and red fluorescent tags.