Fast processes of nanoparticle blood clearance: Comprehensive study.
Blood circulation is the key parameter that determines the in vivo efficiency of nanoagents. Despite clinical success of the stealth liposomal agents with their inert and shielded surfaces, a great number of non-stealth nanomaterials is being developed due to their potential of enhanced functionality. By harnessing surface phenomena, such agents can offer advanced control over drug release through intricately designed nanopores, catalysis-propelled motion, computer-like analysis of several disease markers for precise target identification, etc. However, investigation of pharmacokinetic behavior of these agents becomes a great challenge due to ultra-short circulation (usually around several minutes) and impossibility to use the invasive blood-sampling techniques. Accordingly, the data on circulation of such agents has been scarce and irregular. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput capabilities of the developed magnetic particle quantification technique for nanoparticle circulation measurements and present a comprehensive investigation of factors that affect blood circulation of the non-stealth nanoparticles. Namely, we studied the following 9 factors: particle size, zeta-potential, coating, injection dose, repetitive administration, induction of anesthesia, mice strain, absence/presence of tumors, tumor size. Our fundamental findings demonstrate potential ways to extend the half-life of the agents in blood thereby giving them a better chance of achieving their goal in the organism. The study will be valuable for design of the next generation nanomaterials with advanced biomedical functionality.