Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence Quantum Yield for Freshwater Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter from Northern Russian Lakes
Advanced fluorescence analysis within the wide range of excitation wavelengths from 230 to 510 nm accompanied with chromatography was used to study natural chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from three freshwater Karelian lakes. The influence of excitation wavelength (ex) on fluorescence quantum yield and emission maximum position was determined. The CDOM fluorescence quantum yield has reached a minimum atex∼270-280 nm and a maximum atex∼340-360 nm. It was monotonously decreasing after 370 nm towards longer excitation wavelengths. Analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with multiwavelength fluorescence detector characterized distribution of fluorophores between hydrophilic/hydrophobic CDOM parts. This technique revealed "hidden" protein-like fluorophores for some CDOM fractions, in spite of the absence of protein-like fluorescence in the initial CDOM samples. The humic-like fluorescence was documented for all hydrophilic and hydrophobic CDOM chromatographic peaks, and its intensity was decreasing along with peaks' hydrophobicity. On contrary, the protein-like fluorescence was found only in the hydrophobic peaks, and its intensity was increasing along with peaks' hydrophobicity. This work provides new data on the CDOM optical properties consistent with the formation of supramolecular assemblies controlled by association of low-molecular size components. In addition, these data are very useful for understanding the CDOM function in the environment.