Люкманова Екатерина Назымовна


Период обученияСтрана, городУчебное заведениеДополнительная информация
1993–1999 Россия, Москва МФТИ диплом с отличием

Премии и заслуги

Именной грант Президента РФ для молодых ученых (2008 г.)

Медаль Российской академии наук с премией для молодых ученых РАН (2009 г.)

Стипендия Л' Ореаль-ЮНЕСКО "Для женщин в науке" (2010 г.)

Вторая премия Конкурса молодых ученых в рамках научной конференции по биоорганической химии и биотехнологии «X чтения памяти академика Ю.А. Овчинникова». (2011 г.)

Научный руководитель 3х защищенных кандидатских диссертаций Шулепко М.А. (2009), Копеиной Г.С. (2010) и Хабибуллиной Н.Ф. (2012)





Избранные публикации

  1. Shenkarev Z.O., Karlova M.G., Kulbatskii D.S., Kirpichnikov M.P., Lyukmanova E.N., Sokolova O.S. (2018). Recombinant Production, Reconstruction in Lipid-Protein Nanodiscs, and Electron Microscopy of Full-Length α-Subunit of Human Potassium Channel Kv7.1. Biochemistry Mosc. 83 (5), 562–573 [+]

    Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv7.1 plays an important role in the excitability of cardiac muscle. The α-subunit of Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) is the main structural element of this channel. Tetramerization of KCNQ1 in the membrane results in formation of an ion channel, which comprises a pore and four voltage-sensing domains. Mutations in the human KCNQ1 gene are one of the major causes of inherited arrhythmias, long QT syndrome in particular. The construct encoding full-length human KCNQ1 protein was synthesized in this work, and an expression system in the Pichia pastoris yeast cells was developed. The membrane fraction of the yeast cells containing the recombinant protein (rKCNQ1) was solubilized with CHAPS detergent. To better mimic the lipid environment of the channel, lipid-protein nanodiscs were formed using solubilized membrane fraction and MSP2N2 protein. The rKCNQ1/nanodisc and rKCNQ1/CHAPS samples were purified using the Rho1D4 tag introduced at the C-terminus of the protein. Protein samples were examined using transmission electron microscopy with negative staining. In both cases, homogeneous rKCNQ1 samples were observed based on image analysis. Statistical analysis of the images of individual protein particles solubilized in the detergent revealed the presence of a tetrameric structure confirming intact subunit assembly. A three-dimensional channel structure reconstructed at 2.5-nm resolution represents a compact density with diameter of the membrane part of ~9 nm and height ~11 nm. Analysis of the images of rKCNQ1 in nanodiscs revealed additional electron density corresponding to the lipid bilayer fragment and the MSP2N2 protein. These results indicate that the nanodiscs facilitate protein isolation, purification, and stabilization in solution and can be used for further structural studies of human Kv7.1.

  2. Männikkö R., Shenkarev Z.O., Thor M.G., Berkut A.A., Myshkin M.Y., Paramonov A.S., Kulbatskii D.S., Kuzmin D.A., SampedroCastañeda M., King L., Wilson E.R., Lyukmanova E.N., Kirpichnikov M.P., Schorge S., Bosmans F., Hanna M.G., Kullmann D.M., Vassilevski A.A. (2018). Spider toxin inhibits gating pore currents underlying periodic paralysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115 (17), 4495–4500 [+]

    Gating pore currents through the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel Na1.4 underlie hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) type 2. Gating modifier toxins target ion channels by modifying the function of the VSDs. We tested the hypothesis that these toxins could function as blockers of the pathogenic gating pore currents. We report that a crab spider toxin Hm-3 from can inhibit gating pore currents due to mutations affecting the second arginine residue in the S4 helix of VSD-I that we have found in patients with HypoPP and describe here. NMR studies show that Hm-3 partitions into micelles through a hydrophobic cluster formed by aromatic residues and reveal complex formation with VSD-I through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the S3b helix and the S3-S4 extracellular loop. Our data identify VSD-I as a specific binding site for neurotoxins on sodium channels. Gating modifier toxins may constitute useful hits for the treatment of HypoPP.

  3. Lyukmanova E.N., Bychkov M.L., Sharonov G.V., Efremenko A.V., Shulepko M.A., Kulbatskii D.S., Shenkarev Z.O., Feofanov A.V., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2018). Human secreted proteins SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 control the growth of epithelial cancer cells via interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol. , [+]

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a promising target for development of new anticancer therapies. Here we have investigated the effects of the endogenous human proteins SLURP-1 and SLURP-2, antagonists of nAChRs, on human epithelial cancer cells.

  4. Vasilyeva N.A., Loktyushov E.V., Bychkov M.L., Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N. (2017). Three-Finger Proteins from the Ly6/uPAR Family: Functional Diversity within One Structural Motif. Biochemistry Mosc. 82 (13), 1702–1715 [+]

    The discovery in higher animals of proteins from the Ly6/uPAR family, which have structural homology with snake "three-finger" neurotoxins, has generated great interest in these molecules and their role in the functioning of the organism. These proteins have been found in the nervous, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems of mammals. There are two types of the Ly6/uPAR proteins: those associated with the cell membrane by GPI-anchor and secreted ones. For some of them (Lynx1, SLURP-1, SLURP-2, Lypd6), as well as for snake α-neurotoxins, the target of action is nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are widely represented in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and in many other tissues, including epithelial cells and the immune system. However, the targets of most proteins from the Ly6/uPAR family and the mechanism of their action remain unknown. This review presents data on the structural and functional properties of the Ly6/uPAR proteins, which reveal a variety of functions within a single structural motif.

  5. Dubovskii P.V., Dubinnyi M.A., Konshina A.G., Kazakova E.D., Sorokoumova G.M., Ilyasova T.M., Shulepko M.A., Chertkova R.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Dolgikh D.A., Arseniev A.S., Efremov R.G. (2017). Structural and Dynamic "Portraits" of Recombinant and Native Cytotoxin I from Naja oxiana: How Close Are They? Biochemistry 56 (34), 4468–4477 [+]

    Today, recombinant proteins are quite widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. At the same time, the question about their full equivalence to the native analogues remains unanswered. To gain additional insight into this problem, intimate atomistic details of a relatively simple protein, small and structurally rigid recombinant cardiotoxin I (CTI) from cobra Naja oxiana venom, were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in water. Compared to the natural protein, it contains an additional Met residue at the N-terminus. In this work, the NMR-derived spatial structure of uniformly (13)C- and (15)N-labeled CTI and its dynamic behavior were investigated and subjected to comparative analysis with the corresponding data for the native toxin. The differences were found in dihedral angles of only a single residue, adjacent to the N-terminal methionine. Microsecond-long MD traces of the toxins reveal an increased flexibility in the residues spatially close to the N-Met. As the detected structural and dynamic changes of the two CTI models do not result in substantial differences in their cytotoxicities, we assume that the recombinant protein can be used for many purposes as a reasonable surrogate of the native one. In addition, we discuss general features of the spatial organization of cytotoxins, implied by the results of the current combined NMR and MD study.

  6. Stenkova A.M., Chopenko N.S., Davydova L.A., Mazeika A.N., Bystritskaya E.P., Portnyagina O.Y., Anastyuk S.D., Kulbatskii D.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Dolgikh D.A., Kostetsky E.Y., Sanina N.M. (2017). Engineering of Chimeric Protein Based on E Protein Domain III of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and OmpF Porin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Protein Pept. Lett. , [+]

    Tick-borne encephalitis poses a serious public health threat in the endemic regions. The disease treatment is restricted to symptomatic therapy, so great expectations are in the development of the prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. The domain III of E protein of the tick-borne encephalitis virus is the main antigenic domain which includes virus-specific epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. We have expressed, isolated and characterized the chimeric protein based on the fusion of domain III of E protein of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and bacterial porin OmpF from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The bacterial partner protein was used for decreasing toxicity and increasing immunogenicity of antigen. The chimeric protein was successfully expressed by the E. coli cells and purified using IMAC methodology. The purified protein was recognized with immunoblots by anti-E protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, the protein was able to elicit antibody response against domain III of E protein in immunized mice. The newly obtained chimeric antigen could be valuable for the development of the preventing tick-borne encephalitis subunit vaccines.

  7. Paramonov A.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Myshkin M.Y., Shulepko M.A., Kulbatskii D.S., Petrosian N.S., Chugunov A.O., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S., Shenkarev Z.O. (2017). NMR investigation of the isolated second voltage-sensing domain of human Nav1.4 channel. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1859 (3), 493–506 [+]

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are essential for the functioning of cardiovascular, muscular, and nervous systems. The α-subunit of eukaryotic Na(+) channel consists of ~2000 amino acid residues and encloses 24 transmembrane (TM) helices, which form five membrane domains: four voltage-sensing (VSD) and one pore domain. The structural complexity significantly impedes recombinant production and structural studies of full-sized Na(+) channels. Modular organization of voltage-gated channels gives an idea for studying of the isolated second VSD of human skeletal muscle Nav1.4 channel (VSD-II). Several variants of VSD-II (~150a.a., four TM helices) with different N- and C-termini were produced by cell-free expression. Screening of membrane mimetics revealed low stability of VSD-II samples in media containing phospholipids (bicelles, nanodiscs) associated with the aggregation of electrically neutral domain molecules. The almost complete resonance assignment of (13)C,(15)N-labeled VSD-II was obtained in LPPG micelles. The secondary structure of VSD-II showed similarity with the structures of bacterial Na(+) channels. The fragment of S4 TM helix between the first and second conserved Arg residues probably adopts 310-helical conformation. Water accessibility of S3 helix, observed by the Mn(2+) titration, pointed to the formation of water-filled crevices in the micelle embedded VSD-II. (15)N relaxation data revealed characteristic pattern of μs-ms time scale motions in the VSD-II regions sharing expected interhelical contacts. VSD-II demonstrated enhanced mobility at ps-ns time scale as compared to isolated VSDs of K(+) channels. These results validate structural studies of isolated VSDs of Na(+) channels and show possible pitfalls in application of this 'divide and conquer' approach.

  8. Парамонов А.С., Кульбацкий Д.С., Локтюшов Е.В., Царев А.В., Долгих Д.А., Шенкарёв З.О., Кирпичников М.П., Люкманова Е.Н. (2017). Рекомбинантная продукция и исследование структуры белков человека Lypd6 и Lypd6b. Биоорг. хим. 43 (6), 620–630 [+]

    Белки человека Lypd6 и Lypd6b экспрессируются во многих тканях и имеют высокую степень гомо-
    логии аминокислотной последовательности (~ 54%). Оба белка в отличие от других белков семейства
    Ly6/uPAR имеют дополнительные протяженные N- и С-концевые аминокислотные последователь-
    ности, примыкающие к трехпетельному LU-домену, роль которых на данный момент не изучена. Из-
    вестно, что Lypd6 увеличивает амплитуду токов кальция, индуцированных никотином в нейронах
    тройничного нерва мыши. Lypd6 рыбки Danio rerio участвует в регуляции Wnt/β-катенин сигнального
    каскада, и блокирование экспрессии гена lypd6 приводит к нарушению эмбрионального развития.
    Экспрессия Lypd6b в ооцитах X. laevis повышает чувствительность никотиновых ацетилхолиновых ре-
    цепторов к ацетилхолину и увеличивает скорость их десенситизации. Молекулярные механизмы дей-
    ствия, равно как и пространственная структура Lypd6 и Lypd6b, до сих пор не изучены. В представ-
    ленной работе получены и экспрессированы гены водорастворимых аналогов трехпетельных белков
    человека Lypd6 и Lypd6b, не содержащих N-концевые последовательности (rLypd6 и rLypd6b), а также
    Lypd6 с N-концевой последовательностью – N-rLypd6. Белки получали в виде цитоплазматических
    телец включения в E. coli с последующей солюбилизацией в денатурирующих условиях и ренатураци-
    ей. С целью оптимизации выхода рекомбинантных белков был проведен поиск условий ренатурации.
    Анализ полученных препаратов N-rLypd6, rLypd6 и rLypd6b методами ЯМР-спектроскопии показал,
    что N-rLypd6, возможно, не структурирован. Получение миллиграммовых количеств изотопно-ме-
    ченных вариантов rLypd6 и rLypd6b позволило охарактеризовать вторичную структуру этих белков
    и исследовать внутримолекулярную подвижность. Установлено, что rLypd6 и rLypd6b обладают струк-
    турными элементами, характерными для трехпетельных белков семейства Ly6/uPAR с некоторыми
    уникальными особенностями, такими как наличие дополнительной дисульфидной связи в третьей
    петле и спиральных участков в первой и третьей петлях.


    Потенциал-зависимые K+- и Na+-ионные каналы вовлечены в широкий спектр физиологических
    процессов, включая возбудимость сердечных, мышечных и нервных клеток, а также секрецию гор-
    монов и нейромедиаторов. Эти каналы имеют модульную структуру и состоят из пяти мембранных
    доменов: четырех потенциал-чувствительных доменов (ПЧД) и одного порового домена. На ПЧД раз-
    личных каналов локализованы уникальные сайты связывания с лигандами, поэтому ПЧД рассматри-
    ваются в качестве перспективных фармакологических мишеней. Модульная организация ионных ка-
    налов позволяет ставить задачи по структурным ЯМР-исследованиям изолированных ПЧД отдельно
    от поры. В настоящей работе рассмотрена возможность таких исследований на примере ПЧД канала
    Kv2.1 человека и первого ПЧД канала Nav1.4 человека. Разработаны сопряженные системы бескле-
    точного синтеза на основе бактериального экстракта S30 из E. coli, позволяющие получать милли-
    граммовые количества препаратов ПЧД, включая меченые стабильными изотопами аналоги. Важным
    этапом ЯМР-исследований является подбор мембраномоделирующей среды, обеспечивающей дол-
    говременную стабильность природной структуры мембранного белка в растворе и высокое качество
    ЯМР-спектров. Скрининг различных сред показал, что домены каналов Kv2.1 и Nav1.4 нестабильны
    в средах, содержащих фосфолипиды: мицеллах короткоцепочечного липида DC7PC и липид-детер-
    гентных бицеллах на основе цвиттер-ионных или анионных насыщенных липидов (DMPC и DMPG).
    Показано, что оптимальной средой для структурных ЯМР-исследований являются смеси цвиттер-
    ионного и слабокатионного детергентов (FOS-12/LDAO). Однако, несмотря на высокое качество
    спектров, образец ПЧД канала Nav1.4 в окружении FOS-12/LDAO необратимо агрегировал в течение
    нескольких дней. Вероятно, ПЧД K+- и Na+-каналов человека не являются полностью автономными
    мембранными доменами и для их стабилизации необходимы контакты с другими доменами канала.

  10. Васильева Н.А., Локтюшов Е.В., Бычков М.Л., Шенкарёв З.О., Люкманова Е.Н. (2017). Трехпетельные белки семейства Ly6/uPAR: функциональное многообразие в рамках одного структурного мотива. Успехи биологической химии 57, 303–330 ID:1931
  11. Shulepko M.A., Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Dubovskii P.V., Astapova M.V., Feofanov A.V., Arseniev A.S., Utkin Y.N., Kirpichnikov M.P., Dolgikh D.A. (2016). Towards universal approach for bacterial production of three-finger Ly6/uPAR proteins: Case study of cytotoxin I from cobra N. oxiana. Protein Expr. Purif. 130, 13–20 [+]

    Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the 'three-finger' protein superfamily (Ly6/uPAR family) which includes small β-structural proteins (60-90 residues) with high disulfide bond content (4-5 disulfides). Due to a high cytotoxic activity for cancer cells, cytotoxins are considered as potential anticancer agents. Development of the high-throughput production methods is required for the prospective applications of cytotoxins. Here, efficient approach for bacterial production of recombinant analogue of cytotoxin I from N. oxiana containing additional N-terminal Met-residue (rCTX1) was developed. rCTX1 was produced in the form of E. coli inclusion bodies. Refolding in optimized conditions provided ∼6 mg of correctly folded protein from 1 L of bacterial culture. Cytotoxicity of rCTX1 for C6 rat glioma cells was found to be similar to the activity of wild type CTX1. The milligram quantities of (13)C,(15)N-labeled rCTX1 were obtained. NMR study confirmed the similarity of the spatial structures of recombinant and wild-type toxins. Additional Met residue does not perturb the overall structure of the three-finger core. The analysis of available data for different Ly6/uPAR proteins of snake and human origin revealed that efficiency of their folding in vitro is correlated with the number of proline residues in the third loop and the surface area of hydrophobic residues buried within the protein interior. The obtained data indicate that hydrophobic core is important for the folding of proteins with high disulfide bond content. Developed expression method opens new possibilities for structure-function studies of CTX1 and other related three-finger proteins.

  12. Thomsen M.S., Arvaniti M., Jensen M.M., Shulepko M.A., Dolgikh D.A., Pinborg L.H., Härtig W., Lyukmanova E.N., Mikkelsen J.D. (2016). Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Neurobiol. Aging 46, 13–21 [+]

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain. Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 nAChRs, suggesting that Lynx1 can affect the function of native non-α7, non-α4β2 nAChR subtypes. We further show that Lynx1 and oligomeric β-amyloid1-42 compete for binding to several nAChR subunits, that Ws-Lynx1 prevents β-amyloid1-42-induced cytotoxicity in cortical neurons, and that cortical Lynx1 levels are decreased in a transgenic mouse model with concomitant β-amyloid and tau pathology. Our data suggest that Lynx1 binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the brain and that this interaction might have functional and pathophysiological implications in relation to Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Shenkarev Z.O., Kasheverov I.E., Chugunov A.O., Kulbatskii D.S., Myshkin M.Y., Utkin Y.N., Efremov R.G., Tsetlin V.I., Arseniev A.S., Kirpichnikov M.P., Dolgikh D.A. (2016). Central loop of non-conventional toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia is important for interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Toxicon 119, 274–9 [+]

    'Three-finger' toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia interacts with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs). Mutagenesis and competition experiments with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin revealed that Arg31 and Arg32 residues from the WTX loop II are important for binding to Torpedo californica and human α7 nAChRs. Computer modeling suggested that loop II occupies the orthosteric binding site at α7 nAChR. The similar toxin interface was previously described as a major determinant of allosteric interactions with mAChRs.

  14. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Shenkarev Z.O., Bychkov M.L., Paramonov A.S., Chugunov A.O., Kulbatskii D.S., Arvaniti M., Dolejsi E., Schaer T., Arseniev A.S., Efremov R.G., Thomsen M.S., Dolezal V., Bertrand D., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2016). Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors. Sci Rep 6, 30698 [+]

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a 'three-finger' fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the 'classical' orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs.

  15. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Kudryavtsev D., Bychkov M.L., Kulbatskii D.S., Kasheverov I.E., Astapova M.V., Feofanov A.V., Thomsen M.S., Mikkelsen J.D., Shenkarev Z.O., Tsetlin V.I., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2016). Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. PLoS ONE 11 (2), e0149733 [+]

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell transformation. The majority of previous studies of SLURP-1 have been made using fusion constructs containing, in addition to the native protein, extra polypeptide sequences. Here we describe the activity and pharmacological profile of a recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1) differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM) of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells). Application of mecamylamine and atropine,-non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-nAChRs. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7-nAChRs to rSLURP-1 caused a significant non-competitive inhibition of the response to acetylcholine (up to ~ 70%, IC50 ~ 1 μM). It was shown that rSLURP-1 binds to α7-nAChRs overexpressed in GH4Cl cells, but does not compete with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the receptor. These findings imply an allosteric antagonist-like mode of SLURP-1 interaction with α7-nAChRs outside the classical ligand-binding site. Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1) did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the co-application of α-bungarotoxin with rSLURP-1 did not influence antiproliferative activity of the latter. This supports the hypothesis that the antiproliferative activity of SLURP-1 is related to 'metabotropic' signaling pathway through α7-nAChR, that activates intracellular signaling cascades without opening the receptor channel.

  16. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Shulepko M.A., Paramonov A.S., Chugunov A.O., Janickova H., Dolejsi E., Dolezal V., Utkin Y.N., Tsetlin V.I., Arseniev A.S., Efremov R.G., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2015). Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (39), 23616–30 [+]

    Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) belongs to the group of nonconventional "three-finger" snake neurotoxins. It irreversibly inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and allosterically interacts with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer modeling, we investigated the recombinant mutant WTX analogue (rWTX) which, compared with the native toxin, has an additional N-terminal methionine residue. In comparison with the wild-type toxin, rWTX demonstrated an altered pharmacological profile, decreased binding of orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine to human M1- and M2-mAChRs, and increased antagonist binding to M3-mAChR. Positively charged arginine residues located in the flexible loop II were found to be crucial for rWTX interactions with all types of mAChR. Computer modeling suggested that the rWTX loop II protrudes to the M1-mAChR allosteric ligand-binding site blocking the entrance to the orthosteric site. In contrast, toxin interacts with M3-mAChR by loop II without penetration into the allosteric site. Data obtained provide new structural insight into the target-specific allosteric regulation of mAChRs by "three-finger" snake neurotoxins.

  17. Kudryavtsev D.S., Shelukhina I.V., Son L.V., Ojomoko L.O., Kryukova E.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Zhmak M.N., Dolgikh D.A., Ivanov I.A., Kasheverov I.E., Starkov V.G., Ramerstorfer J., Sieghart W., Tsetlin V.I., Utkin Y.N. (2015). Neurotoxins from Snake Venoms and α-Conotoxin ImI Inhibit Functionally Active Ionotropic GABA Receptors. J. Biol. Chem. , [+]

    Ionotropic receptors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR) regulate neuronal inhibition and are targeted by benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. We show that a fluorescent derivative of α-cobratoxin (α-Ctx), belonging to the family of three-finger toxins (TFTs) from snake venoms, specifically stained the α1β3γ2 receptor; at 10 μM α-Ctx completely blocked GABA-induced currents in this receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes (IC50 = 236 nM) and less potently inhibited α1β2γ2 ≈ α2β2γ2 > α5β2γ2 > α2β3γ2 and α1β3δ GABAARs. The α1β3γ2 receptor was also inhibited by some other TFTs: long α-neurotoxin Ls III and non-conventional toxin WTX. α-Conotoxin ImI displayed inhibitory activity as well. Electrophysiology experiments showed mixed competitive and non-competitive α-Ctx action. Fluorescent α-Ctx, however, could be displaced by muscimol indicating that most of the α-Ctx binding sites overlap with the orthosteric sites at the β/α subunit interface. Modeling and molecular dynamic studies indicated that α-Ctx or α-bungarotoxin seem to interact with GABAAR in a way similar to their interaction with the acetylcholine-binding protein or the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. This was supported by mutagenesis studies and experiments with α-conotoxin ImI and a chimeric Naja oxiana α-neurotoxin indicating that the major role in α-Ctx binding to GABAAR is played by the tip of its central loop II accomodating under loop C of the receptors.

  18. Berkut A.A., Peigneur S., Myshkin M.Y., Paramonov A.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Arseniev A.S., Grishin E.V., Tytgat J., Shenkarev Z.O., Vassilevski A.A. (2015). Structure of Membrane-active Toxin from Crab Spider Heriaeus melloteei Suggests Parallel Evolution of Sodium Channel Gating Modifiers in Araneomorphae and Mygalomorphae. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (1), 492–504 [+]

    We present a structural and functional study of a sodium channel activation inhibitor from crab spider venom. Hm-3 is an insecticidal peptide toxin consisting of 35 amino acid residues from the spider Heriaeus melloteei (Thomisidae). We produced Hm-3 recombinantly in Escherichia coli and determined its structure by NMR spectroscopy. Typical for spider toxins, Hm-3 was found to adopt the so-called "inhibitor cystine knot" or "knottin" fold stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Its molecule is amphiphilic with a hydrophobic ridge on the surface enriched in aromatic residues and surrounded by positive charges. Correspondingly, Hm-3 binds to both neutral and negatively charged lipid vesicles. Electrophysiological studies showed that at a concentration of 1 μm Hm-3 effectively inhibited a number of mammalian and insect sodium channels. Importantly, Hm-3 shifted the dependence of channel activation to more positive voltages. Moreover, the inhibition was voltage-dependent, and strong depolarizing prepulses attenuated Hm-3 activity. The toxin is therefore concluded to represent the first sodium channel gating modifier from an araneomorph spider and features a "membrane access" mechanism of action. Its amino acid sequence and position of the hydrophobic cluster are notably different from other known gating modifiers from spider venom, all of which are described from mygalomorph species. We hypothesize parallel evolution of inhibitor cystine knot toxins from Araneomorphae and Mygalomorphae suborders.

  19. Thomsen M.S., Cinar B., Jensen M.M., Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Tsetlin V., Klein A.B., Mikkelsen J.D. (2014). Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated. Brain Struct Funct 219 (6), 1923–34 [+]

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic compartments. We further estimate the amount of Lynx1 in the rat cortex using known amounts of a heterologously expressed soluble Lynx1 variant (ws-Lynx1) to be approximately 8.6 ng/μg total protein, which is in line with the concentrations of ws-Lynx1 required to affect nAChR function. In addition, we demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus at the mRNA and protein level, and that this is paralleled to some degree by the expression of the nAChR subunits α2, α4, α7 and β2. Our results demonstrate a developmental pattern, localization, and concentration of Ly-6 proteins in the brain, which support a role for these proteins in the modulation of signaling at synaptic membranes.

  20. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Bychkov M.L., Shenkarev Z.O., Paramonov A.S., Chugunov A.O., Arseniev A.S., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2014). Human SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 Proteins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reduce Proliferation of Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells. Acta Naturae 6 (4), 60–6 [+]

    Human secreted Ly-6/uPAR related proteins (SLURP-1 and SLURP-2) are produced by various cells, including the epithelium and immune system. These proteins act as autocrine/paracrine hormones regulating the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and are also involved in the control of inflammation and malignant cell transformation. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the interactions of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 with the α7 and α3β2 subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), respectively. Available knowledge about the molecular mechanism underling the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects is very limited. SLURP-2 remains one of the most poorly studied proteins of the Ly-6/uPAR family. In this study, we designed for the first time a bacterial system for SLURP-2 expression and a protocol for refolding of the protein from cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Milligram quantities of recombinant SLURP-2 and its 13C-15N-labeled analog were obtained. The recombinant protein was characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and a structural model was developed. A comparative study of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects on the epithelial cell growth was conducted using human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, which express only α7-nAChRs. A pronounced antiproliferative effect of both proteins was observed. Incubation of cells with 1 μM SLURP-1 and 1 μM SLURP-2 during 48 h led to a reduction in the cell number down to ~ 54 and 63% relative to the control, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy did not reveal either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An analysis of the dose-response curve revealed the concentration-dependent mode of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 action with EC50 ~ 0.1 and 0.2 nM, respectively. These findings suggest that the α7-nAChR is the main receptor responsible for the antiproliferative effect of SLURP proteins in epithelial cells.

  21. Manni S., Mineev K.S., Usmanova D., Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Winter J., Matkovic M., Deupi X., Arseniev A.S., BallmerHofer K. (2014). Structural and functional characterization of alternative transmembrane domain conformations in VEGF receptor 2 activation. Structure 22 (8), 1077–89 [+]

    Transmembrane signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) entails ligand-mediated dimerization and structural rearrangement of the extracellular domains. RTK activation also depends on the specific orientation of the transmembrane domain (TMD) helices, as suggested by pathogenic, constitutively active RTK mutants. Such mutant TMDs carry polar amino acids promoting stable transmembrane helix dimerization, which is essential for kinase activation. We investigated the effect of polar amino acids introduced into the TMD of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, regulating blood vessel homeostasis. Two mutants showed constitutive kinase activity, suggesting that precise TMD orientation is mandatory for kinase activation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that TMD helices in activated constructs were rotated by 180° relative to the interface of the wild-type conformation, confirming that ligand-mediated receptor activation indeed results from transmembrane helix rearrangement. A molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the transmembrane helix arrangement of wild-type and mutant TMDs revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  22. Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N., Paramonov A.S., Panteleev P.V., Balandin S.V., Shulepko M.A., Mineev K.S., Ovchinnikova T.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S. (2014). Lipid-protein nanodiscs offer new perspectives for structural and functional studies of water-soluble membrane-active peptides. Acta Naturae 6 (2), 84–94 [+]

    Lipid-protein nanodiscs (LPNs) are nanoscaled fragments of a lipid bilayer stabilized in solution by the apolipoprotein or a special membrane scaffold protein (MSP). In this work, the applicability of LPN-based membrane mimetics in the investigation of water-soluble membrane-active peptides was studied. It was shown that a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide arenicin-2 from marine lugworm (charge of +6) disintegrates LPNs containing both zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) and anionic phosphatidylglycerol (PG) lipids. In contrast, the spider toxin VSTx1 (charge of +3), a modifier of Kv channel gating, effectively binds to the LPNs containing anionic lipids (POPC/DOPG, 3 : 1) and does not cause their disruption. VSTx1 has a lower affinity to LPNs containing zwitterionic lipids (POPC), and it weakly interacts with the protein component of nanodiscs, MSP (charge of -6). The neurotoxin II (NTII, charge of +4) from cobra venom, an inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, shows a comparatively low affinity to LPNs containing anionic lipids (POPC/DOPG, 3 : 1 or POPC/DOPS, 4 : 1), and it does not bind to LPNs/POPC. The obtained data show that NTII interacts with the LPN/POPC/DOPS surface in several orientations, and that the exchange process among complexes with different topologies proceeds fast on the NMR timescale. Only one of the possible NTII orientations allows for the previously proposed specific interaction between the toxin and the polar head group of phosphatidylserine from the receptor environment (Lesovoy et al., Biophys. J. 2009. V. 97. № 7. P. 2089-2097). These results indicate that LPNs can be used in structural and functional studies of water-soluble membrane-active peptides (probably except pore-forming ones) and in studies of the molecular mechanisms of peptide-membrane interaction.

  23. Mineev K.S., Lesovoy D.M., Usmanova D.R., Goncharuk S.A., Shulepko M.A., Lyukmanova E.N., Kirpichnikov M.P., Bocharov E.V., Arseniev A.S. (2013). NMR-based approach to measure the free energy of transmembrane helix-helix interactions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1838 (1PB), 164–172 [+]

    Knowledge of the energetic parameters of transmembrane helix-helix interactions is necessary for the establishment of a structure-energy relationship for α-helical membrane domains. A number of techniques have been developed to measure the free energies of dimerization and oligomerization of transmembrane α-helices, and all of these have their advantages and drawbacks. In this study we propose a methodology to determine the magnitudes of the free energy of interactions between transmembrane helices in detergent micelles. The suggested approach employs solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the population of the oligomeric states of the transmembrane domains and introduces a new formalism to describe the oligomerization equilibrium, which is based on the assumption that both the dimerization of the transmembrane domains and the dissociation of the dimer can occur only upon the collision of detergent micelles. The technique has three major advantages compared with other existing approaches: it may be used to analyze both weak and relatively strong dimerization/oligomerization processes, it works well for the analysis of complex equilibria, e.g. when monomer, dimer and high-order oligomer populations are simultaneously present in the solution, and it can simultaneously yield both structural and energetic characteristics of the helix-helix interaction under study. The proposed methodology was applied to investigate the oligomerization process of transmembrane domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and allowed the measurement of the free energy of dimerization of both of these objects. In addition the proposed method was able to describe the multi-state oligomerization process of the VEGFR2 transmembrane domain.

  24. Mineev K.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Krabben L., Serebryakova M.V., Shulepko M.A., Arseniev A.S., Kordyukova L.V., Veit M. (2013). Structural investigation of influenza virus hemagglutinin membrane-anchoring peptide. Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 26 (9), 547–52 [+]

    Hemagglutinin (HA), the trimeric spike of influenza virus, catalyzes fusion of viral and cellular membranes. We have synthesized the anchoring peptide including the linker, transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail (HA-TMR-CT) in a cell-free system. Furthermore, to mimic the palmitoylation of three conserved cysteines within the CT, we chemically alkylated HA-TMR-CT using hexadecyl-methanethiosulfonate. While the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed pure and refolded peptides, the formation of multiple oligomers of higher order impeded further structural analysis. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of both alkylated and non-alkylated HA-TMR-CT revealed an α-helical secondary structure. No major impact of the fatty acids on the secondary structure was detected.

  25. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Buldakova S.L., Kasheverov I.E., Shenkarev Z.O., Reshetnikov R.V., Filkin S.Y., Kudryavtsev D.S., Ojomoko L.O., Kryukova E.V., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Bregestovski P.D., Tsetlin V.I. (2013). Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (22), 15888–99 [+]
  26. Shenkarev Z.O., Paramonov A.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Gizatullina A.K., Zhuravleva A.V., Tagaev A.A., Yakimenko Z.A., Telezhinskaya I.N., Kirpichnikov M.P., Ovchinnikova T.V., Arseniev A.S. (2013). Peptaibol antiamoebin I: spatial structure, backbone dynamics, interaction with bicelles and lipid-protein nanodiscs, and pore formation in context of barrel-stave model. Chem. Biodivers. 10 (5), 838–63 [+]

    Antiamoebin I (Aam-I) is a membrane-active peptaibol antibiotic isolated from fungal species belonging to the genera Cephalosporium, Emericellopsis, Gliocladium, and Stilbella. In comparison with other 16-amino acid-residue peptaibols, e.g., zervamicin IIB (Zrv-IIB), Aam-I possesses relatively weak biological and channel-forming activities. In MeOH solution, Aam-I demonstrates fast cooperative transitions between right-handed and left-handed helical conformation of the N-terminal (1-8) region. We studied Aam-I spatial structure and backbone dynamics in the membrane-mimicking environment (DMPC/DHPC bicelles)(1) ) by heteronuclear (1) H,(13) C,(15) N-NMR spectroscopy. Interaction with the bicelles stabilizes the Aam-I right-handed helical conformation retaining significant intramolecular mobility on the ms-μs time scale. Extensive ms-μs dynamics were also detected in the DPC and DHPC micelles and DOPG nanodiscs. In contrast, Zrv-IIB in the DPC micelles demonstrates appreciably lesser mobility on the μs-ms time scale. Titration with Mn(2+) and 16-doxylstearate paramagnetic probes revealed Aam-I binding to the bicelle surface with the N-terminus slightly immersed into hydrocarbon region. Fluctuations of the Aam-I helix between surface-bound and transmembrane (TM) state were observed in the nanodisc membranes formed from the short-chain (diC12 : 0) DLPC/DLPG lipids. All the obtained experimental data are in agreement with the barrel-stave model of TM pore formation, similarly to the mechanism proposed for Zrv-IIB and other peptaibols. The observed extensive intramolecular dynamics explains the relatively low activity of Aam-I.

  27. Shulepko M.A., Lyukmanova E.N., Paramonov A.S., Lobas A.A., Shenkarev Z.O., Kasheverov I.E., Dolgikh D.A., Tsetlin V.I., Arseniev A.S., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2013). Human neuromodulator SLURP-1: bacterial expression, binding to muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, secondary structure, and conformational heterogeneity in solution. Biochemistry Mosc. 78 (2), 204–11 [+]
  28. Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N., Butenko I.O., Petrovskaya L.E., Paramonov A.S., Shulepko M.A., Nekrasova O.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S. (2013). Lipid-protein nanodiscs promote in vitro folding of transmembrane domains of multi-helical and multimeric membrane proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828 (2), 776–84 [+]

    Production of helical integral membrane proteins (IMPs) in a folded state is a necessary prerequisite for their functional and structural studies. In many cases large-scale expression of IMPs in cell-based and cell-free systems results in misfolded proteins, which should be refolded in vitro. Here using examples of the bacteriorhodopsin ESR from Exiguobacterium sibiricum and full-length homotetrameric K(+) channel KcsA from Streptomyces lividans we found that the efficient in vitro folding of the transmembrane domains of the polytopic and multimeric IMPs could be achieved during the protein encapsulation into the reconstructed high-density lipoprotein particles, also known as lipid-protein nanodiscs. In this case the self-assembly of the IMP/nanodisc complexes from a mixture containing apolipoprotein, lipids and the partially denatured protein solubilized in a harsh detergent induces the folding of the transmembrane domains. The obtained folding yields showed significant dependence on the properties of lipids used for nanodisc formation. The largest recovery of the spectroscopically active ESR (~60%) from the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was achieved in the nanodiscs containing anionic saturated lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPG) and was approximately twice lower in the zwitterionic DMPC lipid. The reassembly of tetrameric KcsA from the acid-dissociated monomer solubilized in SDS was the most efficient (~80%) in the nanodiscs containing zwitterionic unsaturated lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The charged and saturated lipids provided lower tetramer quantities, and the lowest yield (<20%) was observed in DMPC. The overall yield of the ESR and KcsA folding was mainly restricted by the efficiency of the protein encapsulation into the nanodiscs.

  29. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Khabibullina N.F., Kulbatskiy D.S., Shulepko M.A., Petrovskaya L.E., Arseniev A.S., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2012). N-terminal fusion tags for effective production of g-protein-coupled receptors in bacterial cell-free systems. Acta Naturae 4 (4), 58–64 [+]

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) constitute one of the biggest families of membrane proteins. In spite of the fact that they are highly relevant to pharmacy, they have remained poorly explored. One of the main bottlenecks encountered in structural-functional studies of GPCRs is the difficulty to produce sufficient amounts of the proteins. Cell-free systems based on bacterial extracts fromE. colicells attract much attention as an effective tool for recombinant production of membrane proteins. GPCR production in bacterial cell-free expression systems is often inefficient because of the problems associated with the low efficiency of the translation initiation process. This problem could be resolved if GPCRs were expressed in the form of hybrid proteins with N-terminal polypeptide fusion tags. In the present work, three new N-terminal fusion tags are proposed for cell-free production of the human β2-adrenergic receptor, human M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and human somatostatin receptor type 5. It is demonstrated that the application of an N-terminal fragment (6 a.a.) of bacteriorhodopsin fromExiguobacterium sibiricum(ESR-tag), N-terminal fragment (16 а.о.) of RNAse A (S-tag), and Mistic protein fromB. subtilisallows to increase the CF synthesis of the target GPCRs by 5-38 times, resulting in yields of 0.6-3.8 mg from 1 ml of the reaction mixture, which is sufficient for structural-functional studies.

  30. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Khabibullina N.F., Kopeina G.S., Shulepko M.A., Paramonov A.S., Mineev K.S., Tikhonov R.V., Shingarova L.N., Petrovskaya L.E., Dolgikh D.A., Arseniev A.S., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2011). Lipid-protein nanodisks for cell-free production of integral membrane proteins in a soluble and folded state: Comparison with detergent micelles, bicelles and liposomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta , [+]

    Production of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) in a folded state is a key prerequisite for their functional and structural studies. In cell-free (CF) expression systems membrane mimicking components could be added to the reaction mixture that promotes IMP production in a soluble form. Here lipid-protein nanodisks (LPNs) of different lipid compositions (DMPC, DMPG, POPC, POPC/DOPG) have been compared with classical membrane mimicking media such as detergent micelles, lipid/detergent bicelles and liposomes by their ability to support CF synthesis of IMPs in a folded and soluble state. Three model membrane proteins of different topology were used: homodimeric transmembrane (TM) domain of human receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3 (TM-ErbB3, 1TM); voltage-sensing domain of K(+) channel KvAP (VSD, 4TM); and bacteriorhodopsin from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (ESR, 7TM). Structural and/or functional properties of the synthesized proteins were analyzed. LPNs significantly enhanced synthesis of the IMPs in a soluble form regardless of the lipid composition. A partial disintegration of LPNs composed of unsaturated lipids was observed upon co-translational IMP incorporation. Contrary to detergents the nanodisks resulted in the synthesis of ~80% active ESR and promoted correct folding of the TM-ErbB3. None of the tested membrane mimetics supported CF synthesis of correctly folded VSD, and the protocol of the domain refolding was developed. The use of LPNs appears to be the most promising approach to CF production of IMPs in a folded state. NMR analysis of (15)N-Ile-TM-ErbB3 co-translationally incorporated into LPNs shows the great prospects of this membrane mimetics for structural studies of IMPs produced by CF systems.

  31. Mineev K.S., Khabibullina N.F., Lyukmanova E.N., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S. (2011). Spatial structure and dimer-monomer equilibrium of the ErbB3 transmembrane domain in DPC micelles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (8), 2081–8 [+]

    In present work the interaction of two TM α-helices of the ErbB3 receptor tyrosine kinase from the ErbB or HER family (residues 639-670) was studied by means of NMR spectroscopy in a membrane-mimicking environment provided by the DPC micelles. The ErbB3 TM segment appeared to form a parallel symmetric dimer in a left-handed orientation. The interaction between TM spans is accomplished via the non-standard motif and is supported by apolar contacts of bulky side chains and by stacking of aromatic rings together with π-cation interactions of Phe and Arg side chains. The investigation of the dimer-monomer equilibrium revealed thermodynamic properties of the assembly and the presence of two distinct regimes of the dimerization at low and at high peptide/detergent ratio. It was found that the detergent in case of ErbB3 behaves not as an ideal solvent, thus affecting the dimer-monomer equilibrium. Such behavior may account for the problems occurring with the refolding and stability of multispan helical membrane proteins in detergent solutions. The example of ErbB3 allows us to conclude that the thermodynamic parameters of dimerization, measured in micelles for two different helical pairs, cannot be compared without the investigation of their dependence on detergent concentration.

  32. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Shulepko M.A., Mineev K.S., DHoedt D., Kasheverov I.E., Filkin S.Y., Krivolapova A.P., Janickova H., Dolezal V., Dolgikh D.A., Arseniev A.S., Bertrand D., Tsetlin V.I., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2011). NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (12), 10618–27 [+]

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5-30 μM, ws-LYNX1 competed with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μM ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μM caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding.

  33. Шулепко М.А., Люкманова Е.Н., Кашеверов И.Е., Долгих Д.А., Цетлин В.И., Кирпичников М.П. (2011). Бактериальная продукция водорастворимого домена lynx1, - эндогенного нейромодулятора никотиновых рецепторов человека. Биоорг. хим. 37 (5), ID:449
  34. Petrovskaya L.E., Lukashev E.P., Chupin V.V., Sychev S.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Kryukova E.A., Ziganshin R.H., Spirina E.V., Rivkina E.M., Khatypov R.A., Erokhina L.G., Gilichinsky D.A., Shuvalov V.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2010). Predicted bacteriorhodopsin from Exiguobacterium sibiricum is a functional proton pump. FEBS Lett. 584 (19), 4193–6 [+]

    The predicted Exigobacterium sibiricum bacterirhodopsin gene was amplified from an ancient Siberian permafrost sample. The protein bacteriorhodopsin from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (ESR) encoded by this gene was expressed in Escherichia coli membrane. ESR bound all-trans-retinal and displayed an absorbance maximum at 534nm without dark adaptation. The ESR photocycle is characterized by fast formation of an M intermediate and the presence of a significant amount of an O intermediate. Proteoliposomes with ESR incorporated transport protons in an outward direction leading to medium acidification. Proton uptake at the cytoplasmic surface of these organelles precedes proton release and coincides with M decay/O rise of the ESR.

  35. Shenkarev Z.O., Paramonov A.S., Lyukmanova E.N., Shingarova L.N., Yakimov S.A., Dubinnyi M.A., Chupin V.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Blommers M.J., Arseniev A.S. (2010). NMR structural and dynamical investigation of the isolated voltage-sensing domain of the potassium channel KvAP: implications for voltage gating. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (16), 5630–7 [+]

    The structure and dynamics of the isolated voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of the archaeal potassium channel KvAP was studied by high-resolution NMR. The almost complete backbone resonance assignment and partial side-chain assignment of the (2)H,(13)C,(15)N-labeled VSD were obtained for the protein domain solubilized in DPC/LDAO (2:1) mixed micelles. Secondary and tertiary structures of the VSD were characterized using secondary chemical shifts and NOE contacts. These data indicate that the spatial structure of the VSD solubilized in micelles corresponds to the structure of the domain in an open state of the channel. NOE contacts and secondary chemical shifts of amide protons indicate the presence of tightly bound water molecule as well as hydrogen bond formation involving an interhelical salt bridge (Asp62-R133) that stabilizes the overall structure of the domain. The backbone dynamics of the VSD was studied using (15)N relaxation measurements. The loop regions S1-S2 and S2-S3 were found mobile, while the S3-S4 loop (voltage-sensor paddle) was found stable at the ps-ns time scale. The moieties of S1, S2, S3, and S4 helices sharing interhelical contacts (at the level of the Asp62-R133 salt bridge) were observed in conformational exchange on the micros-ms time scale. Similar exchange-induced broadening of characteristic resonances was observed for the VSD solubilized in the membrane of lipid-protein nanodiscs composed of DMPC, DMPG, and POPC/DOPG lipids. Apparently, the observed interhelical motions represent an inherent property of the VSD of the KvAP channel and can play an important role in the voltage gating.

  36. Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N., Paramonov A.S., Shingarova L.N., Chupin V.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Blommers M.J., Arseniev A.S. (2010). Lipid-protein nanodiscs as reference medium in detergent screening for high-resolution NMR studies of integral membrane proteins. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (16), 5628–9 [+]

    The choice of a suitable detergent-based membrane mimetic is of crucial importance for high-resolution NMR studies of membrane proteins. The present report describes a new approach of detergent screening. It is based on the comparison of 2D (1)H,(15)N-correlation spectra of a protein in a membrane-bilayer "reference" medium and in "trial" detergent-based environments. The proposed "reference" medium is the lipid-protein nanodisc (LPN) representing nanoscale phospholipid bilayers wrapped around by apolipoprotein A-1. The set of zwitterionic (DPC, DMPC/DHPC), anionic (SDS, LMPG, LPPG), and weakly cationic (LDAO) detergent-based media was screened for their ability to represent the native structure of the isolated voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of the archaeal potassium channel KvAP. The VSD/LPN complexes composed of saturated zwitterionic (DMPC), anionic (DMPG), or a mixture of unsaturated differently charged (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) lipids were used as reference. All assayed detergent media demonstrate similar CD spectra of the domain with a high level (approximately 60%) of overall helicity but different 2D NMR spectra. Using the reference spectrum of the VSD in LPN, we were able to choose the detergent composition in which the membrane-like structure of the VSD is preserved.

  37. Lesovoy D.M., Bocharov E.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Kosinsky Y.A., Shulepko M.A., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Efremov R.G., Arseniev A.S. (2009). Specific membrane binding of neurotoxin II can facilitate its delivery to acetylcholine receptor. Biophys. J. 97 (7), 2089–97 [+]

    The action of three-finger snake alpha-neurotoxins at their targets, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), is widely studied because of its biological and pharmacological relevance. Most such studies deal only with ligands and receptor models; however, for many ligand/receptor systems the membrane environment may affect ligand binding. In this work we focused on binding of short-chain alpha-neurotoxin II (NTII) from Naja oxiana to the native-like lipid bilayer, and the possible role played by the membrane in delivering the toxin to nAChR. Experimental (NMR and mutagenesis) and molecular modeling (molecular-dynamics simulation) studies revealed a specific interaction of the toxin molecule with the phosphatidylserine headgroup of lipids, resulting in the proper topology of NTII on lipid bilayers favoring the attack of nAChR. Analysis of short-chain alpha-neurotoxins showed that most of them possess a high positive charge and sequence homology in the lipid-binding motif of NTII, implying that interaction with the membrane surrounding nAChR may be common for the toxin family.

  38. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Tikhonov R.V., Shenkarev Z.O., Paramonov A.S., Wulfson A.N., Kasheverov I.E., Ustich T.L., Utkin Y.N., Arseniev A.S., Tsetlin V.I., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2009). Bacterial production and refolding from inclusion bodies of a "weak" toxin, a disulfide rich protein. Biochemistry Mosc. 74 (10), 1142–9 [+]

    The gene for the "weak" toxin of Naja kaouthia venom was expressed in Escherichia coli. "Weak" toxin is a specific inhibitor of nicotine acetylcholine receptor, but mechanisms of interaction of similar neurotoxins with receptors are still unknown. Systems previously elaborated for neurotoxin II from venom of the cobra Naja oxiana were tested for bacterial production of "weak" toxin from N. kaouthia venom. Constructs were designed for cytoplasmic production of N. kaouthia "weak" toxin in the form of a fused polypeptide chain with thioredoxin and for secretion with the leader peptide STII. However, it became possible to obtain "weak" toxin in milligram amounts only within cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Different approaches for refolding of the toxin were tested, and conditions for optimization of the yield of the target protein during refolding were investigated. The resulting protein was characterized by mass spectrometry and CD and NMR spectroscopy. Experiments on competitive inhibition of (125)I-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin binding to the Torpedo californica electric organ membranes containing the muscle-type nicotine acetylcholine receptor (alpha1(2)beta1gammadelta) showed the presence of biological activity of the recombinant "weak" toxin close to the activity of the natural toxin (IC(50) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.5 microM, respectively). The interaction of the recombinant toxin with alpha7 type human neuronal acetylcholine receptor transfected in the GH(4)C(1) cell line also showed the presence of activity close to that of the natural toxin (IC(50) 31 +/- 5.0 and 14.8 +/- 1.3 microM, respectively). The developed bacterial system for production of N. kaouthia venom "weak" toxin was used to obtain (15)N-labeled analog of the neurotoxin.

  39. Krabben L., vanRossum B.J., Jehle S., Bocharov E., Lyukmanova E.N., Schulga A.A., Arseniev A., Hucho F., Oschkinat H. (2009). Loop 3 of short neurotoxin II is an additional interaction site with membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as detected by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 390 (4), 662–71 [+]

    The contact area of neurotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana when interacting with the membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica was determined by solid-state, magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. For this purpose, the carbon signals for more than 90% of the residues of the bound neurotoxin were assigned. Differences between the solution and solid-state chemical shifts of the free and bound form of the toxin are confined to distinct surface regions. Loop II of the short toxin was identified as the main interaction site. In addition, loop III of neurotoxin II shows several strong responses defining an additional interaction site. A comparison with the structures of alpha-cobratoxin bound to the acetylcholine-binding protein from snail species Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica, and of alpha-bungarotoxin bound to an extracellular domain of an alpha-subunit of the receptor reveals different contact areas for long and short alpha-neurotoxins.

  40. Shenkarev Z.O., Lyukmanova E.N., Solozhenkin O.I., Gagnidze I.E., Nekrasova O.V., Chupin V.V., Tagaev A.A., Yakimenko Z.A., Ovchinnikova T.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S. (2009). Lipid-protein nanodiscs: possible application in high-resolution NMR investigations of membrane proteins and membrane-active peptides. Biochemistry Mosc. 74 (7), 756–65 [+]

    High-resolution NMR is shown to be applicable for investigation of membrane proteins and membrane-active peptides embedded into lipid-protein nanodiscs (LPNs). (15)N-Labeled K+-channel from Streptomyces lividans (KcsA) and the antibiotic antiamoebin I from Emericellopsis minima (Aam-I) were embedded in LPNs of different lipid composition. Formation of stable complexes undergoing isotropic motion in solution was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy. The 2D 1H-(15)N-correlation spectra were recorded for KcsA in the complex with LPN containing DMPC and for Aam-I in LPNs based on DOPG, DLPC, DMPC, and POPC. The spectra recorded were compared with those in detergent-containing micelles and small bicelles commonly used in high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins. The spectra recorded in LPN environments demonstrated similar signal dispersion but significantly increased (1)H(N) line width. The spectra of Aam-I embedded in LPNs containing phosphatidylcholine showed significant selective line broadening, thus suggesting exchange process(es) between several membrane-bound states of the peptide. (15)N relaxation rates were measured to obtain the effective rotational correlation time of the Aam-I molecule. The obtained value (approximately 40 nsec at 45 degrees C) is indicative of additional peptide motions within the Aam-I/LPN complex.

  41. Lyukmanova E.N., Shulepko M.A., Shenkarev Z.O., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2009). [The in vitro production of three-finger neurotoxins from snake venoms with a high abundance of disulfide bonds. Problems and their solutions]. Bioorg. Khim. 36 (2), 149–58 [+]

    alpha-Neurotoxins from snake venom are highly efficient inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). These small proteins that have a beta-structural organization attract much interest as a tool for studies of nACh R and as prototypes for the development of new Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. However, the in vitro production of "three-finger" neurotoxins is complicated by the presence of four or five disulfide bonds that are closely located in their molecules. The present review contains a description of the most frequently used modern approaches for the E. coli expression of recombinant proteins (direct expression, expression as fusions, and secretion) with an emphasis placed on the recombinant production of snake alpha-neurotoxins. The methods of E. coli expression of isotopically labeled neurotoxins are described. The proposed solutions will be of broad interest for the bacterial production of other disulfide-abundant proteins.

  42. Shenkarev Z.O., Nadezhdin K.D., Lyukmanova E.N., Sobol V.A., Skjeldal L., Arseniev A.S. (2009). Divalent cation coordination and mode of membrane interaction in cyclotides: NMR spatial structure of ternary complex Kalata B7/Mn2+/DPC micelle. J. Inorg. Biochem. 102 (5-6), 1246–56 [+]

    The cyclotides are the family of hydrophobic bioactive plant peptides, characterized by a circular protein backbone and three knot forming disulfide bonds. It is believed that membrane activity of the cyclotides underlines their antimicrobial, cytotoxic and hemolytic properties, but the specific interactions with divalent cations can be also involved. To assess the mode of membrane interaction and divalent cation coordination in cyclotides, the spatial structure of the Möbius cyclotide Kalata B7 from the African perennial plant Oldenlandia affinis was determined in the presence of anisotropic membrane mimetic (dodecylphosphocholine micelles). The model of peptide/cation/micelle complex was built using 5-doxylstearate and Mn2+ relaxation probes. Results show that the peptide binds to the micelle surface with relatively high affinity by two hydrophobic loops (loop 2 - Thr6-Leu7 and loop 5 - Trp19-Ile21). The partially hydrated divalent cation is coordinated by charged side-chain of Glu3, aromatic side chain of Tyr11 and free carbonyls of Thr4 and Thr9, and is located in direct contact with the polar head-groups of detergent. The comparison with data about other cyclotides indicates that divalent cation coordination is the invariant property of all cyclotides, but the mode of peptide/membrane interactions is varied. Probably, the specific cation/peptide interactions play a major, but yet not known, role in the biological activity of the cyclotides.

  43. Liukmanova E.N., Shulga A.A., Arseneva D.A., Pluzhnikov K.A., Dolgikh D.A., Arsenev A.S., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2009). [Expression of neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana cobra venom in Escherichia coli in a hybrid form with thioredoxin]. Bioorg. Khim. 30 (1), 30–40 [+]

    Neurotoxin II from the venom of cobra Naja oxiana is a short type alpha-neurotoxin, which competitively inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The toxin gene was expressed as a construct fused with the thioredoxin gene and the linker encoding the enteropeptidase recognition site and a Met residue between the genes. The fusion protein was mainly cleaved by cyanogen bromide, since enteropeptidase was less effective. The yield of neurotoxin II was 6 mg/l of the bacterial culture. The resulting recombinant protein was identified with native neurotoxin II by its N-terminal analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2004, vol. 30, no. 1; see also http://www.maik.ru.

  44. Khabibullina N.F., Liukmanova E.N., Kopeina G.S., Shenkarev Z.O., Arsenev A.S., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2009). [The development and optimization of coupled cell-free expression system for production of the transmembrane domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3]. Bioorg. Khim. 36 (5), 654–60 [+]


    Разработана сопряженная система бесклеточного синтеза на основе бактериального экстракта S30 из E. coliдля продукции трансмембранного домена рецепторной тирозин-киназы человека ErbB3 (остатки с 632 по 675).Исследованы условия синтеза домена в растворимом виде в присутствии различных детергентов и в виде нерастворимого осадка трансляционной смеси. Подобраны условия очистки рекомбинантного домена, полученного с применением обоих подходов. Конечный выход целевого белка в оптимальных условиях составил 1.8-2.0 мг/мл трансляционной смеси.

  45. Люкманова Е.Н., Копеина Г.С., Шулепко М.А., Шенкарёв З.О., Арсеньев А.С., Долгих Д.А., Кирпичников М.П. (2009). Бесклеточная продукция внеклеточного домена никотинового ацетилхолинового рецептора. Acta Naturae 1, 92–94 ID:450
  46. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Paramonov A.S., Sobol A.G., Ovchinnikova T.V., Chupin V.V., Kirpichnikov M.P., Blommers M.J., Arseniev A.S. (2008). Lipid-protein nanoscale bilayers: a versatile medium for NMR investigations of membrane proteins and membrane-active peptides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (7), 2140–1 ID:356
  47. Lyukmanova E.N., Shenkarev Z.O., Schulga A.A., Ermolyuk Y.S., Mordvintsev D.Y., Utkin Y.N., Shoulepko M.A., Hogg R.C., Bertrand D., Dolgikh D.A., Tsetlin V.I., Kirpichnikov M.P. (2007). Bacterial expression, NMR, and electrophysiology analysis of chimeric short/long-chain alpha-neurotoxins acting on neuronal nicotinic receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (34), 24784–91 [+]

    Different snake venom neurotoxins block distinct subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Short-chain alpha-neurotoxins preferentially inhibit muscle-type nAChRs, whereas long-chain alpha-neurotoxins block both muscle-type and alpha7 homooligomeric neuronal nAChRs. An additional disulfide in the central loop of alpha- and kappa-neurotoxins is essential for their action on the alpha7 and alpha3beta2 nAChRs, respectively. Design of novel toxins may help to better understand their subtype specificity. To address this problem, two chimeric toxins were produced by bacterial expression, a short-chain neurotoxin II Naja oxiana with the grafted disulfide-containing loop from long-chain neurotoxin I from N. oxiana, while a second chimera contained an additional A29K mutation, the most pronounced difference in the central loop tip between long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and kappa-neurotoxins. The correct folding and structural stability for both chimeras were shown by (1)H and (1)H-(15)N NMR spectroscopy. Electrophysiology experiments on the nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that the first chimera and neurotoxin I blockalpha7 nAChRs with similar potency (IC(50) 6.1 and 34 nM, respectively). Therefore, the disulfide-confined loop endows neurotoxin II with full activity of long-chain alpha-neurotoxin and the C-terminal tail in neurotoxin I is not essential for binding. The A29K mutation of the chimera considerably diminished the affinity for alpha7 nAChR (IC(50) 126 nM) but did not convey activity at alpha3beta2 nAChRs. Docking of both chimeras toalpha7 andalpha3beta2 nAChRs was possible, but complexes with the latter were not stable at molecular dynamics simulations. Apparently, some other residues and dimeric organization of kappa-neurotoxins underlie their selectivity for alpha3beta2 nAChRs.

  48. Bocharov E.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Ermolyuk Ya.S., Shulga A.A., Pluzhnikov K.A., Dolgikh D.A., Kirpichnikov M.P., Arseniev A.S. (2003). Resonance assignment of 13C-15N-labeled snake neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana. 24, 247–254 ID:451