Ермакова Галина Владимировна

Научный сотрудник (Лаборатория молекулярных основ эмбриогенеза)

Тел.: +7 (495) 336-86-11

Эл. почта: gala1559@gmail.com

Избранные публикации

  1. Eroshkin F.M., Nesterenko A.M., Borodulin A.V., Martynova N.Y., Ermakova G.V., Gyoeva F.K., Orlov E.E., Belogurov A.A. Jr, Lukyanov K.A., Bayramov A.V., Zaraisky A.G. (2016). Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis. Sci Rep 6, 23049 [+]

    Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development.

  2. Nesterenko A.M., Orlov E.E., Ermakova G.V., Ivanov I.A., Semenyuk P.I., Orlov V.N., Martynova N.Y., Zaraisky A.G. (2015). Affinity of the heparin binding motif of Noggin1 to heparan sulfate and its visualization in the embryonic tissues. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 468 (1-2), 331–6 [+]

    Heparin binding motifs were found in many secreted proteins and it was suggested that they are responsible for retardation of the protein diffusion within the intercellular space due to the binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycanes (HSPG). Here we used synthetic FITC labeled heparin binding motif (HBM peptide) of the Xenopus laevis secreted BMP inhibitor Noggin1 to study its diffusion along the surface of the heparin beads by FRAP method. As a result, we have found out that diffusivity of HBM-labeled FITC was indeed much lesser than those predicted by theoretical calculations even for whole protein of the Noggin size. We also compared by isothermal titration calorimetry the binding affinity of HBM and the control oligolysine peptide to several natural polyanions including heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, the bacterial dextran sulfate and salmon sperm DNA, and demonstrated that HBM significantly exceeds oligolysine peptide in the affinity to HS, heparin and DNA. By contrast, oligolysine peptide bound with higher affinity to dextran sulfate. We speculate that such a difference may ensure specificity of the morphogen binding to HSPG and could be explained by steric constrains imposed by different distribution of the negative charges along a given polymeric molecule. Finally, by using EGFP-HBM recombinant protein we have visualized the natural pattern of the Noggin1 binding sites within the X. laevis gastrula and demonstrated that these sites forms a dorsal-ventral concentration gradient, with a maximum in the dorsal blastopore lip. In sum, our data provide a quantitative basis for modeling the process of Noggin1 diffusion in embryonic tissues, considering its interaction with HSPG.

  3. Ivanova A.S., Shandarin I.N., Ermakova G.V., Minin A.A., Tereshina M.B., Zaraisky A.G. (2015). The secreted factor Ag1 missing in higher vertebrates regulates fins regeneration in Danio rerio. Sci Rep 5, 8123 [+]

    Agr family includes three groups of genes, Ag1, Agr2 and Agr3, which encode the thioredoxin domain-containing secreted proteins and have been shown recently to participate in regeneration of the amputated body appendages in amphibians. By contrast, higher vertebrates have only Agr2 and Agr3, but lack Ag1, and have low ability to regenerate the body appendages. Thus, one may hypothesize that loss of Ag1 in evolution could be an important event that led to a decline of the regenerative capacity in higher vertebrates. To test this, we have studied now the expression and role of Ag1 in the regeneration of fins of a representative of another large group of lower vertebrates, the fish Danio rerio. As a result, we have demonstrated that amputation of the Danio fins, like amputation of the body appendages in amphibians, elicits an increase of Ag1 expression in cells of the stump. Furthermore, down-regulation of DAg1 by injections of Vivo-morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a retardation of the fin regeneration. These data are in a good agreement with the assumption that the loss of Ag1 in higher vertebrates ancestors could lead to the reduction of the regenerative capacity in their modern descendants.

  4. Pereverzev A.P., Gurskaya N.G., Ermakova G.V., Kudryavtseva E.I., Markina N.M., Kotlobay A.A., Lukyanov S.A., Zaraisky A.G., Lukyanov K.A. (2015). Method for quantitative analysis of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay at the single cell level. Sci Rep 5, 7729 [+]

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a ubiquitous mechanism of degradation of transcripts with a premature termination codon. NMD eliminates aberrant mRNA species derived from sources of genetic variation such as gene mutations, alternative splicing and DNA rearrangements in immune cells. In addition, recent data suggest that NMD is an important mechanism of global gene expression regulation. Here, we describe new reporters to quantify NMD activity at the single cell level using fluorescent proteins of two colors: green TagGFP2 and far-red Katushka. TagGFP2 was encoded by mRNA targeted to either the splicing-dependent or the long 3'UTR-dependent NMD pathway. Katushka was used as an expression level control. Comparison of the fluorescence intensities of cells expressing these reporters and cells expressing TagGFP2 and Katushka from corresponding control NMD-independent vectors allowed for the assessment of NMD activity at the single cell level using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The proposed reporter system was successfully tested in several mammalian cell lines and in transgenic Xenopus embryos.

  5. Tereshina M.B., Ermakova G.V., Ivanova A.S., Zaraisky A.G. (2014). Ras-dva1 small GTPase regulates telencephalon development in Xenopus laevis embryos by controlling Fgf8 and Agr signaling at the anterior border of the neural plate. Biol Open , [+]

    We previously found that the small GTPase Ras-dva1 is essential for the telencephalic development in Xenopus laevis because Ras-dva1 controls the Fgf8-mediated induction of FoxG1 expression, a key telencephalic regulator. In this report, we show, however, that Ras-dva1 and FoxG1 are expressed in different groups of cells; whereas Ras-dva1 is expressed in the outer layer of the anterior neural fold, FoxG1 and Fgf8 are activated in the inner layer from which the telencephalon is derived. We resolve this paradox by demonstrating that Ras-dva1 is involved in the transduction of Fgf8 signal received by cells in the outer layer, which in turn send a feedback signal that stimulates FoxG1 expression in the inner layer. We show that this feedback signal is transmitted by secreted Agr proteins, the expression of which is activated in the outer layer by mediation of Ras-dva1 and the homeodomain transcription factor Otx2. In turn, Agrs are essential for maintaining Fgf8 and FoxG1 expression in cells at the anterior neural plate border. Our finding reveals a novel feedback loop mechanism based on the exchange of Fgf8 and Agr signaling between neural and non-neural compartments at the anterior margin of the neural plate and demonstrates a key role of Ras-dva1 in this mechanism.

  6. Martynova N.Y., Ermolina L.V., Ermakova G.V., Eroshkin F.M., Gyoeva F.K., Baturina N.S., Zaraisky A.G. (2013). The cytoskeletal protein Zyxin inhibits Shh signaling during the CNS patterning in Xenopus laevis through interaction with the transcription factor Gli1. Dev. Biol. 380 (1), 37–48 [+]

    Zyxin is a cytoskeletal protein that controls cell movements by regulating actin filaments assembly, but it can also modulate gene expression owing to its interactions with the proteins involved in signaling cascades. Therefore, identification of proteins that interact with Zyxin in embryonic cells is a promising way to unravel mechanisms responsible for coupling of two major components of embryogenesis: morphogenetic movements and cell differentiation. Now we show that in Xenopus laevis embryos Zyxin can bind to and suppress activity of the primary effector of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade, the transcription factor Gli1. By using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that Zyxin is essential for reduction of Shh signaling within the dorsal part of the neural tube of X. laevis embryo. Thus, our finding discloses a novel function of Zyxin in fine tuning of the central neural system patterning which is based on the ventral-to-dorsal gradient of Shh signaling.

  7. Shemiakina I.I., Ermakova G.V., Cranfill P.J., Baird M.A., Evans R.A., Souslova E.A., Staroverov D.B., Gorokhovatsky A.Y., Putintseva E.V., Gorodnicheva T.V., Chepurnykh T.V., Strukova L., Lukyanov S., Zaraisky A.G., Davidson M.W., Chudakov D.M., Shcherbo D. (2012). A monomeric red fluorescent protein with low cytotoxicity. Nat Commun 3, 1204 [+]

    Multicolour labelling with fluorescent proteins is frequently used to differentially highlight specific structures in living systems. Labelling with fusion proteins is particularly demanding and is still problematic with the currently available palette of fluorescent proteins that emit in the red range due to unsuitable subcellular localization, protein-induced toxicity and low levels of labelling efficiency. Here we report a new monomeric red fluorescent protein, called FusionRed, which demonstrates both high efficiency in fusions and low toxicity in living cells and tissues.

  8. Shcherbo D., Murphy C.S., Ermakova G.V., Solovieva E.A., Chepurnykh T.V., Shcheglov A.S., Verkhusha V.V., Pletnev V.Z., Hazelwood K.L., Roche P.M., Lukyanov S., Zaraisky A.G., Davidson M.W., Chudakov D.M. (2009). Far-red fluorescent tags for protein imaging in living tissues. Biochem. J. 418 (3), 567–74 [+]

    Разработан яркий, мономерный, фотостабильный, pH-стабильный, дальне-красный флуоресцентый белок mKate2. Белок mKate2 хорошо показал себя в качестве метки во фьюзах с рядом белков, как в культуре клеток, так и в трансгенных лягушках Xenopus laevis (совместно с лабораторией Молекулярных основ эмбриогенеза ИБХ РАН).

  9. Martynova N.Y., Eroshkin F.M., Ermolina L.V., Ermakova G.V., Korotaeva A.L., Smurova K.M., Gyoeva F.K., Zaraisky A.G. (2008). The LIM-domain protein Zyxin binds the homeodomain factor Xanf1/Hesx1 and modulates its activity in the anterior neural plate of Xenopus laevis embryo. Dev. Dyn. 237 (3), 736–49 [+]

    The question of how subdivision of embryo into cell territories acquiring different fates is coordinated with morphogenetic movements shaping the embryonic body still remains poorly resolved. In the present report, we demonstrate that a key regulator of anterior neural plate patterning, the homeodomain transcriptional repressor Xanf1/Hesx1, can bind to the LIM-domain protein Zyxin, which is known to regulate cell morphogenetic movements via influence on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Using a set of deletion mutants, we found that the Engrailed-type repressor domain of Xanf1 and LIM2-domain of Zyxin are primarily responsible for interaction of these proteins. We also demonstrate that Zyxin overexpression in Xenopus embryos elicits effects similar to those observed in embryos with downregulated Xanf1. In contrast, when the repressor-fused variant of Zyxin is expressed, the forebrain enlargements typical for embryos overexpressing Xanf1 develop. These results are consistent with a possible role of Zyxin as a negative modulator of Xanf1 transcriptional repressing activity.

  10. Shcherbo D., Merzlyak E.M., Chepurnykh T.V., Fradkov A.F., Ermakova G.V., Solovieva E.A., Lukyanov K.A., Bogdanova E.A., Zaraisky A.G., Lukyanov S., Chudakov D.M. (2007). Bright far-red fluorescent protein for whole-body imaging. Nat. Methods 4 (9), 741–6 [+]

    Разработан новый флуоресцентный белок Katushka, обладающий флуоресценцией в дальне-красной области спектра, которая является предпочтительной для анализа сигнала внутри тканей животных. Katushka в десять раз ярче, чем созданные ранее дальне-красные флуоресцентные белки и характеризуется высокой скоростью созревания, высокой рН-стабильностью и фотостабильностью. Это делает новый белок идеальным инструментом для прижизненного мечения клеток внутри целых организмов. Создан мономерный вариант белка Katushka, названный mKate, для исследования внутриклеточной локализации белков.

  11. Ermakova G.V., Solovieva E.A., Martynova N.Y., Zaraisky A.G. (2007). The homeodomain factor Xanf represses expression of genes in the presumptive rostral forebrain that specify more caudal brain regions. Dev. Biol. 307 (2), 483–97 [+]

    Early development of the rostral forebrain (RF) in vertebrates is accompanied by the inhibition of two homeobox regulators, Otx2 and Pax6 in the rostral sector of the anterior neural plate, further giving rise to the RF. However, the precise molecular mechanism and meaning of this inhibition is still obscure. We now demonstrate that the activity of the Anf homeodomain protein is necessary and sufficient for the anterior inhibition of Otx2 and Pax6. Specifically, we show that knockdown of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf, by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides results in the anterior expansion of Otx2 and Pax6 expression into the presumptive RF territory. Furthermore, by overexpressing hormone-inducible activator- and repressor-fused variants of Xanf in the absence of protein synthesis, we present evidence that Xanf can directly downregulate Otx2 and Pax6 but not the more rostrally expressed Bf1, Bf2, Fgf8 and Nkx2.4. These results explain how the inhibitory activity of Xanf can discriminate RF regulators in favor of posterior forebrain ones. Assuming that the Anf type of homeobox is specific for vertebrates, our data suggest that the emergence of Anf in evolution could be a critical event for RF development in vertebrates through the elimination of homologues of modern posterior forebrain regulators from the rostral sector of the anterior neural plate.

  12. Martynova N., Eroshkin F., Ermakova G., Bayramov A., Gray J., Grainger R., Zaraisky A. (2004). Patterning the forebrain: FoxA4a/Pintallavis and Xvent2 determine the posterior limit of Xanf1 expression in the neural plate. Development 131 (10), 2329–38 [+]

    During early development of the nervous system in vertebrates, expression of the homeobox gene Anf/Hesx1/Rpx is restricted to the anterior neural plate subdomain corresponding to the presumptive forebrain. This expression is essential for normal forebrain development and ectopic expression of Xenopus Anf, Xanf1 (also known as Xanf-1), results in severe forebrain abnormalities. By use of transgenic embryos and a novel bi-colour reporter technique, we have identified a cis-regulatory element responsible for transcriptional repression of Xanf1 that defines its posterior expression limit within the neural plate. Using this element as the target in a yeast one-hybrid system, we identified two transcription factors, FoxA4a/Pintallavis and Xvent2 (also known as Xvent-2), which are normally expressed posterior to Xanf1. Overexpression of normal and dominant-negative versions of these factors, as well as inhibition of their mRNA translation by antisense morpholinos, show that they actually function as transcriptional repressors of Xanf1 just behind its posterior expression limit. The extremely high similarity of the identified Anf cis-regulatory sequences in Xenopus, chick and human, indicates that the mechanism restricting posterior expression of Anf in Xenopus is shared among vertebrates. Our findings support Nieuwkoop's activation-transformation model for neural patterning, according to which the entire neurectoderm is initially specified towards an anterior fate, which is later suppressed posteriorly as part of the trunk formation process.

  13. Terskikh A., Fradkov A., Ermakova G., Zaraisky A., Tan P., Kajava A.V., Zhao X., Lukyanov S., Matz M., Kim S., Weissman I., Siebert P. (2000). "Fluorescent timer": protein that changes color with time. Science 290 (5496), 1585–8 [+]

    We generated a mutant of the red fluorescent protein drFP583. The mutant (E5) changes its fluorescence from green to red over time. The rate of color conversion is independent of protein concentration and therefore can be used to trace time-dependent expression. We used in vivo labeling with E5 to measure expression from the heat shock-dependent promoter in Caenorhabditis elegans and from the Otx-2 promoter in developing Xenopus embryos. Thus, E5 is a "fluorescent timer" that can be used to monitor both activation and down-regulation of target promoters on the whole-organism scale.

  14. Ermakova G.V., Alexandrova E.M., Kazanskaya O.V., Vasiliev O.L., Smith M.W., Zaraisky A.G. (1999). The homeobox gene, Xanf-1, can control both neural differentiation and patterning in the presumptive anterior neurectoderm of the Xenopus laevis embryo. Development 126 (20), 4513–23 [+]

    From the onset of neurectoderm differentiation, homeobox genes of the Anf class are expressed within a region corresponding to the presumptive telencephalic and rostral diencephalic primordia. Here we investigate functions of the Xenopus member of Anf, Xanf-1, in the differentiation of the anterior neurectoderm. We demonstrate that ectopic Xanf-1 can expand the neural plate at expense of adjacent non-neural ectoderm. In tadpoles, the expanded regions of the plate developed into abnormal brain outgrowths. At the same time, Xanf-1 can inhibit terminal differentiation of primary neurones. We also show that, during gastrula/neurula stages, the exogenous Xanf-1 can downregulate four transcription regulators, XBF-1, Otx-2, Pax-6 and the endogenous Xanf-1, that are expressed in the anterior neurectoderm. However, during further development, when the exogenous Xanf-1 was presumably degraded, re-activation of XBF-1, Otx-2 and Pax-6 was observed in the abnormal outgrowths developed from blastomeres microinjected with Xanf-1 mRNA. Other effects of the ectopic Xanf-1 include cyclopic phenotype and inhibition of the cement gland, both by Otx-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Using fusions of Xanf-1 with the repressor domain of Drosophila engrailed or activator domain of herpes virus VP16 protein, we showed that most of the observed effects of Xanf-1 were probably elicited by its functioning as a transcription repressor. Altogether, our data indicate that the repressor function of Xanf-1 may be necessary for regulation of both neural differentiation and patterning in the presumptive anterior neurectoderm.

  15. Kazanskaya O.V., Severtzova E.A., Barth K.A., Ermakova G.V., Lukyanov S.A., Benyumov A.O., Pannese M., Boncinelli E., Wilson S.W., Zaraisky A.G. (1997). Anf: a novel class of vertebrate homeobox genes expressed at the anterior end of the main embryonic axis. Gene 200 (1-2), 25–34 [+]

    Five novel genes homologous to the homeobox-containing genes Xanf-1 and Xanf-2 of Xenopus and Hesx-1/Rpx of mouse have been identified as a result of a PCR survey of cDNA in sturgeon, zebrafish, newt, chicken and human. Comparative analysis of the homeodomain primary structure of these genes revealed that they belong to a novel class of homeobox genes, which we name Anf. All genes of this class investigated so far have similar patterns of expression during early embryogenesis, characterized by maximal transcript levels being present at the anterior extremity of the main embryonic body axis. The data obtained also suggest that, despite considerable high structural divergence between their homeodomains, all known Anf genes may be orthologues, and thus represent one of the most quickly evolving classes of vertebrate homeobox genes.