Press-room / Digest
Peptides encoded by short open reading frames regulate plant growth and development
A group of researchers from the Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Plant Proteomics of IBCH, together with scientists from the Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine and Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, describes peptides encoded by sORFs in a model organism, Physcomitrella patens. The results published in international journal Genome Research. The authors identified about 70,000 transcribed short open reading frames located on long non-coding RNAs and various parts of messenger RNAs. Proteomic and peptidomic methods revealed the translation of peptides from several tens of short frames. Analysis of mutant moss lines with knockout and overexpression of some of them located on long non-coding RNAs revealed that the peptides play an important role in the regulation of moss growth and development. The mechanisms of such regulation need further study. The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation. Learn more
The secret of fireworm is out: molecular basis of Odontosyllis bioluminescence
Bioluminescence – a widespread in the natural world process of “cold light” emission by living organisms, is based on an enzyme-dependent biochemical oxidation reaction in which energy is released in the form of light. Out of 40 presumed bioluminescent systems only for nine the structures of substrates - luciferins were elucidated, while a complete description of the luciferin biosynthesis pathway along with the corresponding enzymes was done only for two. A collaborative effort by an international team of scientists led to the discovery of new luciferin from marine polychaetes Odontosyllis undecimdonta. The characterization of three key low-molecular-weight components of Odontosyllis bioluminescence system, presented in an article published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, further enabled the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of bioluminescence of this organism. Learn more
Elastic fibers and elastin receptor complex: Neuraminidase-1 takes the center stage
In addition to the "supporting" role, the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects the phenotype and behavior of the cell. The largest structures of ECM are elastic fibers (EF), which are mainly composed of elastin. Elastogenesis is a tightly regulated process involving the sialidase activity of the Neuraminidase-1 (Neu-1), which is part of the elastin receptor. Neu-1 also serves as a sensor of elastin degradation, it is able to regulate the activation of TGF-beta and possibly is involved in remodeling of EFs. The article, published in the journal Matrix Biology, provides an overview of the results of long-term studies of molecular mechanisms of life regulation of elastic fibers, in which Neu-1 plays a key role. A number of important data, in particular, the existence of the membrane-bound form of Neu-1 and its ability to dimerize, was first obtained by the French-Russian research team from the University of Reims and IBCH RAS (Lab. of biomolecular modeling).
Unique CDR3 epitope targeting by CAR-T cells is a viable approach for treating T cell
Researches from the Laboratory of biocatalysis of IBCH RAS in collaboration with the Scripps Research Institute and Xiamen University demonstrated for the first time that targeting the CDR3 regions of malignant T cell clones by cell therapy is a viable approach to eliminate leukemia cells. The study was supported by RSF and published in Leukemia.
New rigid nicotine analogues are potent ligands of nicotinic receptors
Malfunctioning of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is observed in various mental and neurodegenerative diseases, therefore, the search and design of nAChR ligands is of particular interest. Researchers from the Department of Molecular Neuroimmune Signalling of IBCH, Russian Academy of Sciences in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Florence (Italy) designed new nicotine analogues and revealed their high affinity for α4β2 and α7 nAChRs using radioligand binding assay. In the electrophysiological and calcium imaging experiments some selected compounds showed α7 and α3β2 agonistic properties, while on the α4β2, compounds 1a and 2a behaved as antagonists. Results of the study are published in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.